Loftus and Palmer

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what was their aim
to see the effect of leading questions on eyewitness testimonies
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how many participants for experiment 1
45 students
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how many participants for experiment 2
150 students
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describe procedure of experiment 1
watched 7, 5 sec+ vid clips of car crashes. order varied 2 reduce order effects. split into 5 groups. bumped, smashed, contacted, hit & collided. written EWT given + Qs. critical question: how fast were the cars going when they ___ each other in mph
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describe procedure of experiment 2
shown a 1 minute film. 3 groups: control, hit and smashed. control group asked no question about speed. describe crash and answer Qs. one week later asked 10 Qs including: 'was there any broken glass' as the critical q.
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what were the findings of experiment 1
smashed = 40.8 mph. contacted = 31.8 mph.
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what were the findings of experiment 2
control = 6/50 said yes. hit = 7/50 said yes. smashed = 16/50 said yes.
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what was the overall conclusion
EWT can be affected by leading questions
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generalisability
students: limited road experience. any foreign students: not used to used MPH. large sample.
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reliability
they repeated the experiment so replicability is high. tight controls: what film watched, questions asked.
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applicability
help police understand how reliable EWT are when convicting criminals
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validity
no real life emotions or attention levels of a real life crime. low task and ecological validity.
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ethics
potential psychological harm: brings back memories of car crashes in the past. received consent and right to withdraw.
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45 students

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