Loftus and Palmer

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What was the aim of the study?
To see if leading questions are likely to affect someone's memory of an event.
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How many pt's in Procedure 1?
45, split into 5 groups of 9
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What was the critical question?
How fast were the cars going when they........ each other?
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After the clip a questionnaire was given to pts and the critical question had a different verb each time, what were they?
Smashed, Collided, Bumped, Hit, Contacted
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How many pt's in Procedure 2?
150, split into 3 groups of 50
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How long was the video clip in procedure 2 and what came next?
1 min. Pt's asked about speed of car (hit/smashed). The control group were not asked about the speed.
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What was asked a week later in procedure 2?
Did you see any broken glass?
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Results 1
Smashed 40.8 Contacted 31.8 9mph difference
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Results 2
Smashed 16 Hit 7 Control 6
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What was the conclusion?
Leading questions cause a distortion in people's memory and they should NOT be used in court/ewt. The word smashed indicates a more serious event.
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What were the strengths of the study?
Lab experiment - clear controls, is reliable and can be tested for reliability. Good sample size of 195 in total. Watching a video of a car crash less distressing than a real one (ethical). Speed estimates - objective
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What were the weaknesses of the study?
All pt's uni students - internal motivation. Lacks ecological validity - artifical and set up. Demand characteristics. Some pt's may have still been distressed from video.
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Card 2

Front

How many pt's in Procedure 1?

Back

45, split into 5 groups of 9

Card 3

Front

What was the critical question?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

After the clip a questionnaire was given to pts and the critical question had a different verb each time, what were they?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How many pt's in Procedure 2?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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