loftus and palmer?

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background?
Schema Theory proposes memories are stored in mental network
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what actives these networks?
Current experiences activate these networks and information related to what is being experienced is fed back to interpret/ fill in the gaps in the new information.
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aim? experiment 1
To investigate how information provided to a witness after an event will influence their memory of that event
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sampling method?
oppotunity sampling
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sample characteristics?
: 45 students from the University of Washington were divided into 5 groups of 9 participants in each group.
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method?
Lab Experiment (all Ps tested in the same lecture theatre).Independent measures design.
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procedure? part 1
Shown 7 clips of traffic accidents borrowed from videos for Driver’s Education courses.
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procedure part 2?
After each clip, participants were given a questionnaire with 9 filler questions to disguise what the researchers were investigating, and one critical question: “About how fast were the cars going when they… (Smashed; collided; hit; bumped; contacted
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what were the results?
Mean speed estimate (mph) in response to critical question was: Smashed 40.5 Hit 34.0
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conlusion 1?
Response Bias: Participants cannot recall the speed so conform to what they think the experimenter expects, given the wording of the question
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conclusion 2?
Memory is altered: The critical verb activates schema, i.e. smashed implies more severe collisions which happen at faster speeds. This information is integrated with information from the event, distorting the memory the collision is recalled faster
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experiment 2 aim?
To investigate whether leading questions cause false memory
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sampling charactrisitics?
150 students from University of Washington were divided into 3 groups of 50 participants in each group
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procedure part 1?
Shown a 1 minute film which contained a 4-second multiple car crash.
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procedure part 2?
Given a questionnaire containing the critical question: “About how fast were the cars going when they…(smashed; hit)…each other?” The 3rd (control) group did not have this questio
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procedure part 3?
One week later, they completed another questionnaire about the accident. The critical question was “Did you see any broken glass? Yes/No”. There was no broken glass in the film.
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results?
Smashed Hit Control Number who said Yes to recalling broken glass 16 7 6
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conclusions?
More participants falsely recalled broken glass when asked a leading question containing the verb Smashed than when asked a leading question containing the verb Hit or no leading question.
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explination of conclusion?
Therefore, the leading question activated their schema for a more severe accident, where broken glass would be expected, resulting in reconstruction of their memory.
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memory is reconstructive, it is a complex formed of what?
Memory from the event input through the senses, i.e. what was observed in the videoclips.
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memory is reconstructive, it is a complex formed of what? 2
Post-event information from leading qus/ media/ others, which is integrated with the original memory, distorting recall. Individuals cannot distinguish which information came from which source, once they are integrated
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evaluation, ethics? protection from harm
People watched car crashes, which could lead to recalling car accidents they’ve experienced, causing distress. However, the videos came from Driver’s Ed films and were therefore not likely to contain particularly distressing scenes like fatalities.
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evaluation, ethics? informed consent?
participants were not aware the researchers were investigating whether memory could be manipulated using leading questions, as the questionnaire used filler questions to disguise the aim.
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evaluation, ethics? confidentuallity
participants completed questionnaires on their memory of the collision, which means their answers could be kept anonymous.
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Card 2

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what actives these networks?

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Current experiences activate these networks and information related to what is being experienced is fed back to interpret/ fill in the gaps in the new information.

Card 3

Front

aim? experiment 1

Back

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Card 4

Front

sampling method?

Back

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Card 5

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sample characteristics?

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