Locomotion Strand 1

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What are bipeds?
Two legs
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What are the advantages of being bipedal?
thoracic limb for other functions human development
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What forms of locomotion could being bipedal be considered an adaptation for?
flight prehension (grasping/seizing)
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What are quadrupeds?
four legs
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What advantages does being a quadruped have?
large base of support for stability can have specialised function between limbs
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What are longer forelimbs adapted for?
brachiation (swinging through trees)
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What are long hindlimbs adapted for?
jumping walking
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Explain tendon springs
specialism tendons stretched over joints energy recycled into system
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What are the advantages of a flexible spine?
store & save energy in spine longer stride when extended
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Give an example of a slow gait
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What has a fast gait and why??
carnivores for catching prey
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What does compressing the limb in stance allow?
store and release of energy
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Give 2 examples of intermediate gaits
skipping bipeds trotting horses
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What is the tail for in quadrupedal mammals?
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What is digitigrade?
walk on digits
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What is unguligrade?
walk on toes (eg horses)
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Give some factors of lightening of the distal limb (2)
reduction in number of bones (as bone is energetically expensive) muscle replaced by tendon pulleys (tendons don't need energy put in)
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Where is the elastic energy storage and return in kangaroos and wallabies?
plantaris tendon
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What is the purpose of a catapult mechanism?
Make muscles contract quickly store energy in elastic tissues
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Give an example of where a catapult mechanism is found
biceps brachii tendon in the horse protracts/swings/catapults limb forward
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What is the major process in evolution and explain it.
natural selection gradual, non-random process biological traits become more/less common through differential reproductive success
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What is a bimodal distribution?
favouring extremes pressure on mean
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What could happen if the two halves of a bimodal distribution start exclusively reproducing?
formation of two species
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What happens if pressure is put on one extreme?
skewed population
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What is sexual selection, and what are the two types?
developing/selecting for features that maximise reproduction success intersexual intrasexual
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What is artificial selection?
inbreeding intentional breeding for certain traits, or combination of traits
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Give the pros and cons of artificial selection
traits selected by humans - could be breeding attempting to eradicate something eg something later in life purely for human benefit humans could be selecting traits that don't necessarily make the animal fittest
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What is autapomorphy?
unique derived feature
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What is synapomorphy?
shared derived feature
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Give some uses of phylogenies (4)
understanding biodiversity/unravelling tree of life working out how traits have evolved identifying/studying convergent evolution examining correlation of trait evolution
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What is convergent evolution?
independent evolution of similar traits
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What is anagenesis?
gradual transformation of one species to another
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What is cladogenesis?
Splitting of a species at nodes into 2+ lineages
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What is exaptation?
shifts in the function of a trait during evolution
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What are five of the main functions of bone?
Support for tissues and muscle, leverage for locomotion, white blood cell production, protection of organs and soft tissues, calcium and mineral regulation.
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What does the cranial skeleton consist of?
The skull.
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Postcranially, bones can be classifed by topography into the axial and appendicular, what are these?
Axial is the central body and the appendicular are the arms and legs.
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Bones can also be classified by shape what are the seven different shapes of bone.
Long bones Short bones Flat bones Irregular bones Sesamoid bones Splanchic bones Pneumatic bones
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What is the main function of long bones?
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What is the main function of short bones?
To make provision for multiple articulations and therefore complex movement.
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What are the main functions of flat bones?
To provide large attachment surfaces for muscle and protection to underlying soft parts.
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What are the main functions of sesamoid bones?
To ease tendon path and prevent excess tendon wear. Increase moment arm of muscle.
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What are the three layers of bones?
Cortical (compact bone), trabecullar (spongy bone), medullary cavity.
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Which of the layers are missing in flat bones?
The medullary cavity. It is made of two layers of compact bone surrounded by either spongy bone or air.
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What are the properties of lamellar bone? Are there any disadvantages to it?
It has a regular concentric arrangement meaning it is strong. However it is produced slowly.
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What are the properties of woven bone, when is it produced?
It has an irregular arrangement meaning it is weak but can be produced rapidly in response to an injury such as a fracture. It only has a small trabecular.
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How many layers is the periosteum made up of and where is is found?
The periosteum consists of two layers that cover the outside of the bone.
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What are the four main functions of the periosteum?
Its functions are: protection; osteogenesis; containing sensory nerves, blood and lymphatic vessels.
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Card 2


What are the advantages of being bipedal?


thoracic limb for other functions human development

Card 3


What forms of locomotion could being bipedal be considered an adaptation for?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What are quadrupeds?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What advantages does being a quadruped have?


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