LO b) describe the structure and functions of sensory, relay and motor neurons

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What are mammalian neurones made up of?
A cell body, dendrons, dendrites and an axon
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Describe myelinated neurones.
Axons are surrounded by schwann cells which protect, insulate and act as phagocytes to remove cell debris and are involved in the regeneration of peripheral nerves. The schwann cells wrap around the axon many times forming the myelin sheath.
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What is myelin made up of?
Lipids with some protein
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What are non-myelinated neurones used for?
Coordinating bodily functions such as breathing and actions in the digestive system
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What are the features of neurones?
They're surrounded by a myelin sheath, they have gated ion channels that control entry/exit of Na and K ions, they have a cell body containing a nucleus, mitochondria and ribosomes, Na and K pumps, they're long so they can transmit action potential
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Why do neurones need to contain a large number of mitochondria?
Mitochondria is responsible for supplying energy in the form of ATP and neurones need a lot of energy therefore they need lots of mitochondria. They also need energy to pump Na and K ions into the axon
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What are the features of non-myelinated cells?
Loosely wrapped Schwann cells on several neurones, short cells, transmit action potential at 2-20m/s, transmit impulses over short distances
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Card 2

Front

Axons are surrounded by schwann cells which protect, insulate and act as phagocytes to remove cell debris and are involved in the regeneration of peripheral nerves. The schwann cells wrap around the axon many times forming the myelin sheath.

Back

Describe myelinated neurones.

Card 3

Front

Lipids with some protein

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Coordinating bodily functions such as breathing and actions in the digestive system

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

They're surrounded by a myelin sheath, they have gated ion channels that control entry/exit of Na and K ions, they have a cell body containing a nucleus, mitochondria and ribosomes, Na and K pumps, they're long so they can transmit action potential

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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