Livy notes

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immortalibus operibus
refers to the previous chapter: Romulus had defeated Rome's enemies and secured peace.
1 of 44
refers to the Campus Martius, an open space near the Tiber used for gatherings of the people such as army musters.
2 of 44
in campo ad Caprae paludem
Mimesis, the placement of the words reflects the geography.
3 of 44
while this fairly boring activity of reviewing the troops is going on, a sudden strom occurs signalled by the word subito.
4 of 44
coorta tempestas cum magno fragore tontribusque tam denso regem operuit nimbo ut conspectum eius contioni abstulerit
dramatic description of a mediterranean storm. Note Hendiadys- what is really one idea is being expressed as two- which here expresses rolls of thunder also noe cacophany.
5 of 44
denso regemoperuit nimbo
mimesis- the cloud was big enough to cover Romulus just like desno andnimbo cover the phrase.
6 of 44
nec deinde in terris Romulus fuit.
a short simple sentence intended for dramatic impact: he was never seen again.
7 of 44
in terris
it is a euphemism- Romulus had been taken up into heaven.
8 of 44
Romana *****...obtinuit.
it is a long and complex sentence-contrasted against the previous one-follows the confused and shifting feelings of the Romana *****.
9 of 44
emphatically placed near the start of the clause.
10 of 44
etsi satis
sound play stresses Livy's point, building up the men's love for Romulus.
11 of 44
raptum procella
Cacophany and rolling R sounds echo the sudden violence of the event.
12 of 44
their of being "orphaned" reminds us that they are young and that Romulus had been like a father to them.
13 of 44
is an emotive word-echoes their feelings.
14 of 44
maestum aliquamdiu silentium obtinuit
M/N alliteration echoes the mute men and the long vowel's and the assonance of the U's echoes the length of the silence and the mournful mood.
15 of 44
satis credebat
could suggest that the story reported by the senators is not true.
16 of 44
Deinde a paucis initio facto, deum deo nactum, regem parentemque urbis Romanae salvere universi Romulum iubent;
Livy describes how the confused and sad silence gives way to adulation. Romulus is called 3 things, deum,regem and oarentemque reminding us that they saw him not only as a king but also a father figure.
17 of 44
deum deo
juxtaposition and polyptoton stress Romulus' divinity.
18 of 44
at the beginning of the sentence contrasts with the universi later on as more of the people take up the cry-highlights the belief in him.
19 of 44
salvere universi
VER sound play highlights how all the men now worshipped Romulus.
20 of 44
pacem precibus exposcunt, uti volens propitius suam smeper sospitet progeniem.
already they pray to him as a god asking for a continuation of peace that he secured while he ws alive. P alliteration expressed the fervency of their prayers.
21 of 44
volens proptiussuam semper sospitet
the sibilance in this part gives a softer tone of entreaty.
22 of 44
an emotive word emphatically placed and following on from the earlier use of parentem. Mimesis, at the end of the line just like descendants are.
23 of 44
fuisse credo tum quoque aliquos qui discerptum regem patrum manibus taciti arguerent
this is a description of the alternative account. discerptum and the the hard hitting alliteration of the k sounds build up the violence of the act. the juxtaposition of regem patrum- they were not acting as patres and so their act is shocking.
24 of 44
those who repeated the story had to do so quietly no doubt because they might be in danger form the patres.
25 of 44
manavit enim haec quoque sed perobscura fama
striking vocabulary-perobscura, a compound adjective, to suggest that the people had to be careful about spreading this story and manvit a pictorial word which likens the the spread of the rumour to liquid flowing.
26 of 44
illam alteram admiratio viri et pavor praesens nobilitavit.
gives two reasons for the deification story prevailing, they admired Romulus and so were ready to regard him as a god, but also they were scared.
27 of 44
chiasmus-illustrates the cintrasting beliefs and how the second one prevailed.
28 of 44
et consilio etiam unius hominis addita rei dicitur fides.
the deification story was backed up by one man . Consilio suggests that there was a deliberate attempt to give credit to the story and that he went out of his for it- could suggest that this story wasn't true.
29 of 44
namque Proculis Iulius ...
Livy stresses Iulius' reputatuion with the words gravis and autor. he was the sort of man who was believed whatever he said- is Livy suggesting that the senators put him forward for this reason?
30 of 44
sollicita civitae desiderio regis et infensa patribus
the words used stress how volatile the mood of the people was-in other words why the senators needed to do something to defuse the hostility to them.
31 of 44
he uses this word to appeal to the ***** who had been left orphaned.
32 of 44
caelo repente delapsus
he repeats the story of Romulus having been taken into heaven.
33 of 44
perfusus horrore
this is the appropriate reaction on seeing a supernatural manifestation. Intended to make Iulius' story more credible.
34 of 44
suggests Romulus's divinity
35 of 44
petens precibus
alliteration recalls in line 104 which also expresses an act of prayer.
36 of 44
ut contra intueri fas esset
also suggestive of Romulus' divinity. intueri is a delibrately formal word which increases the solemnity of the atmosphere.
37 of 44
the word used for gods connects them with the sky reminding us that this is where Romulus is supposed to have gone.
38 of 44
mea Roma caput orbis terrarum sit
he refers to Rome as his own, recalling the earlier repeated description of him as a father and a flattering prediction that Rome would be the head of the world which by Livy's day it has become.
39 of 44
colant sciantque...tradant
3 jussive subjunctives continue the tone of command, this whole phrase looks forward to Rome's future as an imperial power.
40 of 44
'haec' inquit, 'locutus sublimis abiit.'
accounts for Romulus' continued absence by recording his departure into heaven.
41 of 44
Mirum quantum illo viro nuntianti haec fidei fuerit
Livy's comment suggests that he night not find the story convincing, but hints that wishful thinking played a part in persuading the Romans because they found the story consoling-lenitum.
42 of 44
apud plebem exercitumque
clearly states the two sections which the senators needed to placate.
43 of 44
turbido and serena tranquilla
the contrast of these words make the sudden shift in weather echo the changing mood of the romans- pathetic fallacy.
44 of 44

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Card 2




refers to the Campus Martius, an open space near the Tiber used for gatherings of the people such as army musters.

Card 3


in campo ad Caprae paludem


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Card 4




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Card 5


coorta tempestas cum magno fragore tontribusque tam denso regem operuit nimbo ut conspectum eius contioni abstulerit


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