Living organisms

Species
Used in the classification of living organisms, referring to related organisms capable of interbreeding.
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Phylum
A taxonomic rank between kingdom and class (the plural is phyla). The arthropods, for example, are a phylum.
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Genus
A rank in classification below family and above species.
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Binomial
Having two parts to a name. In the binomial system of classification, each organism is named for its genus then its species.
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Cladistics
A method of classification that groups organisms according to characteristics of a common (shared) ancestor.
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DNA
Deoxyribonucleic acid. The material inside the nucleus of cells, carrying the genetic information of a living being.
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RNA
Ribonucleic acid, a type of genetic material.
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Gills
The respiratory organ found in fish and other aquatic animals. Gills have a large surface area, and a good blood supply, for efficient gas exchange to happen in water.
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Arthropod
Arthropods are an important group of invertebrates.
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Invertebrates
An animal without a backbone.
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Parasites
An organism that lives in or on another organism (the host). The parasite receives nutrients from the host, harming the host as it does so.
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Cell
Basic unit of life. Unicellular organisms only have one cell. Multicellular organisms have many cells.
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Chitin
Hard and tough natural material made from glucose molecules joined together. Chitin is found in cell walls of fungi and in the exoskeletons of arthropods.
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Chloroplast
Contains the green pigment chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis.
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Chromosome
The structure made of DNA that codes for all the characteristics of an organism.
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Dry mass
The mass of an organism after its water has been removed.
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Enzyme
Proteins which catalyse or speed up chemical reactions.
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Glycogen
Animals store glucose as glycogen in their liver and muscle tissues.
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Hypae
Fine, branching, thread-like filaments produced by fungi.
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Mycelium
The network of hyphae produced by a fungus.
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Organic
Grown without the use of artificial pesticides and fertilisers, or relating to or coming from living matter.
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Pathogen
Microorganism that causes disease.
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Photosynthesis
A chemical process used by plants and algae to make glucose and oxygen from carbon dioxide and water, using light energy. Oxygen is produced as a by-product of photosynthesis.
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Plasmid
The small circular genetic material present in bacterial cells and used in genetic engineering or genetic modification.
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Polysaccharides
Polymers of sugars, such as glycogen and starch, made from many simple sugar molecules joined together.
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Saprotrophic nutrition
A type of feeding in which digestive enzymes are secreted outside the cell onto food material, followed by absorption of the products.
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Starch
A type of carbohydrate. Plants can turn the glucose produced in photosynthesis into starch for storage, and turn it back into glucose when it is needed for respiration.
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Stimuli
Things that set off a reaction in the nervous system, for example, light, heat, sound, gravity, smell, taste, or temperature. The singular is stimulus.
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Sucrose
A disaccharide made from glucose and fructose, it is used as table sugar.
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Contract
Become shorter.
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Magnification
The amount that an image of something is scaled up when viewed through a microscope.
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Organism
Living entity, eg animals, plants or microorganisms.
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Vacuole
A space within the cytoplasm of plant cells that contains cell sap.
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Alveoli
Tiny air sacs in the lungs, where gas is exchanged during breathing.
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Cellulose
A carbohydrate. It forms the cell wall in plant cells.
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Concentration gradient
The difference in the concentration of a chemical across a membrane.
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Cytoplasm
The living substance inside a cell (not including the nucleus).
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Diffusion
The movement of particles (molecules or ions) from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
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Glucose
A simple sugar made by the body from food, which is used by cells to make energy in respiration.
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Isotonic
Two solutions at the same concentration are described as isotonic.
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Mass
The amount of matter an object contains. Mass is measured in 'kg'.
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Osmosis
The movement of water molecules across a partially-permeable membrane from a region of low solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration.
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Partially
Also called semi-permeable. A partially permeable membrane allows water and other small molecules to pass through but not larger molecules such as starch.
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Respiration
Chemical change that takes place inside living cells, which uses glucose and oxygen to produce the energy organisms need to live. Carbon dioxide is a by-product of respiration.
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Solute
The dissolved substance in a solution.
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Starch
A type of carbohydrate. Plants can turn the glucose produced in photosynthesis into starch for storage, and turn it back into glucose when it is needed for respiration.
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turgid
Having turgor; enlarged and swollen with water.
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Solvent
The liquid in which the solute dissolves to form a solution.
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Villi
Finger-like projections in the small intestine that provide a large surface area for the absorption of food.
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Card 2

Front

A taxonomic rank between kingdom and class (the plural is phyla). The arthropods, for example, are a phylum.

Back

Phylum

Card 3

Front

A rank in classification below family and above species.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Having two parts to a name. In the binomial system of classification, each organism is named for its genus then its species.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A method of classification that groups organisms according to characteristics of a common (shared) ancestor.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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