Literature Through Time

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What is the name of the period from 449-1066?
Old English/ Anglo-Saxon Period,
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For content of the Anglo-Saxon period, what did literature have a strong belief in?
Fate,
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For content of Anglo-Saxon literature, what did they juxtapose?
The church and pagan world,
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For content of Anglo-Saxon literature, what did they admire?
They admired heroic warriors who prevail in battle,
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For content of Anglo-Saxon literature, what did they express and give instructions of?
They expresses religious faith and gave moral instruction through literature,
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What was the most dominant genre of Anglo-Saxon literature and how was it traditionally passed on?
-Poetry, -Oral traditions so speaking the literature,
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For the style of Anglo-Saxon literature, what kind of form did they have for their poetry?
A unique verse form,
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For the style of Anglo-Saxon literature, what was the most traditional rhythm and what 3 popular techniques did they use?
-4 beat rhythm, -Caesura, -Alliteration, -Repetition,
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For the effects of Anglo-Saxon literature, why was religious faith expressed?
As Christianity helpeed literacy to spread,
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For the effects of Anglo-Saxon literature, what was introduced from Rome to Britain?
The Roman alphabet
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For the effects of Anglo-Saxon literature, why was oral traditional used?
As it helped to unite diverse people and their myths,
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For a historical context, how was life lived/ruled?
Life was cented around ancestral tribes or clans that ruled themselves,
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For historical context, how did the people arrive in England and example tribes?
At first the people were warriors from invading outlying areas: Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Danes,
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Give one key piece of literature from the Anglo-Saxon period?
Beowulf
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What was the next historical period from and the name?
-Middle English period (the Medieval Period), -1066-1485
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For the content of Medieval literature, what form of literature is used to instruct the illeterate masses for what?
-Plays that instructs the illerate masses in morals and religion,
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For content, what code did literature put forward?
A chivalric code of honour,
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For content, what two themes of literature was more used?
-Romance, -Religious devotion,
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For the style of Medieval literature, what tradition of passing on literature was continued from the Anglo-Saxon period?
Oral traditions, so story-telling verbally continued,
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For the style of Medieval literature, there was an increase in _ _ _ _ (4) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (7)
Folk ballads
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For the style of Medieval literature, what two types of plays were increasingly popular?
-Mystery and miracle plays, -Morality plays,
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For Mediaval literature, what three techniques were popularily used and what do they mean?
-Stock epithets (A descriptive word or phrase which an author uses regularly to describe an object or person), -Kennings (A figurative expression with a metaphorical meaning), -Frame stories (Serves as a companion to a story within a story),
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For the style of Medieval literature, what kind of tales did they have?
Moral
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What is the effect of Medieval literature have religious morals and themes?
As it allows the church to instruct its people through the morality and miracle plays
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What is the effecrt of Medieval literature being told orally/ in play form?
As it allows an illiterate population to hear and see the literature
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For the historical context of the period, what battle is occuring at the time and what two things does this bring to Britain?
-The Holy Crusades, -It brings the development of a money economy and trade for the first time in Britain,
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Who is crowned King in 1066?
William the Conqueror
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Who is crowned Kind in 1154 and what does he bring to Britain?
-Henry III, -Brings a judicial system, royal courts, juries, and chivalry to Britain,
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Give two key Medieval literature books from the period?
-Domesday Books, -L'Morte de Arthur,
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What was the name of the next period and the years to and from?
-Renaissance, -1485-1660
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For the content of Renaissance literature, what does the world view shift from, as displayed in previous periods, to what?
The world view shifts from religion and the afterlife to one stressing human life on Earth,
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For content of the Renaissance period, what two popular themes were explored in literature?
1) Development of human potential, 2) Many aspects of love explored,
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For content of the period, give 5 different types of love discussed in Renaissance literature?
-Unrequited love, -Timeless love, -Constant love, -Courtly love, -Love subject to change,
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For the period, what were the two most common styles of literature?
-Poetry, -Drama
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What new type of peotry was introduced?
Metaphysical poetry, -They question the nature of reality in a philosophical way,
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For the style of poetry, what were the two forms of poetry most popularly used?
-Sonnet, -Written in verse,
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For Renaissance poetry, what technique was commonly used?
Conceits- Elaborate and unexpected metaphors,
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Who were the new styles and genres of poetry supported by?
-By royalty,
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For the genres of Renaissance literature, what themes were used?
-Tragedies, -Comedies, -Histories,
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For the effects of Renaissance literature, did everyone support play productions? Who did and who didn't?
-Commoners welcomed at some play productions (like the ones at the Globe) while conservatives try to close the theatres on grounds that they promote brazen behaviours,
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For the effects of Renaissance literature, did everyone embrace metaphysical poets?
-Not all middle class embrace the metaphysical poets and their abstract conceits,
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For the historical context of the period, what War ended in 1485 and what arrives as a result?
-The War of the Roses ends in 1485, -Political stability arrives,
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For the historical context of the period, what helps stabilize England as a language and what does it allow people to do?
-Printing press, -It allows more people to read a variety of literature,
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For the historical context of the Renaissance, why were the economic changes?
From the movement from farm-based to one of international trade,
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Give three famous poets from the Renaissance period.
-William Shakespeare, -John Donne, -Christopher Marlowe,
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What was the next period called and the times to and from?
-Neoclassical period (The Restoration), -1660-1798
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For content of Restoration literature, what five values do they put emphasis on?
-Reason, -Logic, -Harmony, -Stability, -Wisdom
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For content for the Restoration period, what exists between the Government and the people and what does this allow?
-Locke, -A social contract between the Government and the people. -The Government guarantees "natural rights" of life, liberty and property,
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For the Restoration period, give four styles of popular literature?
-Poetry, -Essays, -Novels, -Letters, diaries, biographies,
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For the Restoration literature, what technique was famously used?
Satire- The use of irony and exaggeration to poke fun at human faults and foolishness in order to correct human behaviour,
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For the effect of Restoration literature, what belief do they put across?
That man is basically evil,
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For the effect of Restoration literature, what approach do they put forward?
An approach to life: "The world as it should be".
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For historical context of the Restoration period, what percent of which gender are illiterate and has this increased or decreased?
-50% of men, -Increased,
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For the historical context of Restoration literature, what caused the demise of traditional village life?
Fenced enclosures of land,
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For the historical context of Restoration literature, what does the beginning of the industialised revolution lead to?
Impoverished masses begin to grow and farming life declines,
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For a historical context of the Restoration period, what houses did educated men sped their evenings?
Coffee houses
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Give a key literature figure from the Restoration period?
William Congreve,
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What was the name of the next historical time period and when?
Romanticism, -1798-1832
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For content of Romantic literature, what did they suggest human knowledge consists of?
Impressions and ideas formed in the individual's min,
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For romantic literature, what did theme did they begin to introduce in literature?
-Gothic elements and terror/ horror stories and novels,
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For the content of Romantic literature, what can nature provide that man-made urbanised towns and factory environments can't?
-Nature allows one to find comfort and peace,
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What two styles did Romantic literature commonly use?
-Poetry, -Lyrical ballads,
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For the effects of romantic literature, what is evil attributed to?
It is attributed to society, not human nature,
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For the effects of romantic literature, what are children presented as/ seen as?
Hapless victims of poverty and exploitation,
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For the effects of romantic literature, what did it create out of protest for what?
-A movement of protest, -For a desire of personal freedom,
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For the historical context of the romantic period, who rises to power in France and oppose England how?
-Napoleon, -Opposes England militarily and economically,
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For historical contest, what party philosophy believed the Government should not interfere with what?
-Tory philosophy, -Government should NOT interfere with private enterprise,
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For the historical context of the romantic era, what two inventions are developed?
-Railroads begin to run, -Gas lamps developed,
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For historical context, who gains representation in British parliament?
Middle classes,
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Give two key literature romantic novelists?
-Jane Austen and Mary Shelley
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Give five key literature romantic poets?
-William Blake, -William Wordsworth, -Lord byron, -Percy Shelley, -John Keats,
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What was the next period called and the times?
-Victorian Period, -1832-1900
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For the content of Victorian literature, what conflict was presented between who?
Conflict between those in power and the common masses of laborers and the poor,
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For content, shocking lifes are highlighted in Victorian literature to insist on what?
-The shocking life of sweatshops and urban poor, -To insist on reform country versus city life,
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For content of Victorian literature, how was sex presented?
-Sexual discretion, (or lack of it)
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Give 6 popular contents in Victorian literature including romance, heroines, villains, letters, coincidence and marriage?
-Romantic triangles, -Heroines in physical danger, -Aristocratic villains, -Misdirected letters, -Strained coincidence, -Bigamous marriage,
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What genre of Victorian literature becomes popular for the first time and what is this shown in?
-Novels, -Mass produced for the first time,
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What type of novels were introduced which deals with a person's formative years or spiritual education?
Bildungsroman- "coming of age"
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What three new genres of novels were increasingly popular and an example of one?
-Political novels, -Detective novels (Sherlock Holmes), -Serialized novels,
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How was poetry changed and what new form was increasingly used and its definition?
-Poetry was easier to understand, -Elegies (A poem or song composed in elegiac couplets or as a lament for the dead,
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What style were the dramas in the Victorian period?
Comedies of manners,
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What was another new format for stories to be placed for the masses?
Magazines,
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For Victorian literature, what effect did it have on the masses?
Literature begins to reach more people and the masses,
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For the historical context of the Victorian period, what three things become cheap?
-Paper, -Magazines, -Novels,
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For the historical context of the Victorian period, what was there unprecedented growth in?
-Of industry and business in Britain,
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For the historical context of the Victorian period, what was there unparalleled dominance of?
-Nations, economies and trade abroad,
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Give six famous authors from the Victorain period?
-Charles Dickens, -Thomas Hardy, -George Eliot, -Oscar Wilde, -Darwin, -Charlotte Bronte,
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What was the next period called and the years?
-Modern/ Post Modern Period, -1900-1980
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For content of the modern period, what are individuals presents as fighting in a world of what?
-Lonely individual fighting to find peace and comfort, -In a world that has lost its absolute values and traditions,
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For the content of modern literature, man is presented as what except for what?
Man is presented as nothing except what he makes of himself,
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For content in modern literature, what is there a belief in and what are decisions in literature based on?
-There is a belief in situational ethics so no absolute values, -Decisions are based on the situation one is involved in at the moment,
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For content in modern literature, what is there a mixture between which does what for the reader?
There is a mixture of fantasy with non-fiction, -This blurs lines of reality for the reader,
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For content of modern literature, what increasingly happens to heroes in literature?
The death or loss of the hero,
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For content of modern literature, why is destruction made possible?
With technology,
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For styles of modern literature, what form was poetry more written in?
Free verse,
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What were three other forms of modern literature increasingly used?
-Speeches, -Memoirs, -Novels
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For styles in modern literature, what began to appear in literature more and the definition?
Epiphanies, a sudden realization,
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What tense was increasingly used in modern literature?
Present tense,
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What kind of feelings did modern literature put forward? (5)
-Detached, unemotional,- humourless, -Stream of consciousness, -Magic realism,
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What was the effect of modern literature/ the message it put forward?
-An approach to life: "Seize life for the moment and get all you can out of it"
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For the historical context of the modern era, what two wars occured through this period and a detail for each?
-British Empire loses 1 million soldiers to WW1, -Winston Churchill leads Britain through WW2, and the Germans bomb England directly,
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For the historical context of modern literature, what do British colonies begin to demand?
Independence,
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Give three key authors from modern literature?
-Dylan Thomas, -George Orwell, -D.H. Lawrence
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What was the next and last literary period called and the time period?
-Contemporary Period or Post-modern period, -1980 to the present,
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For content of contemporary literature, what was presented increasingly about concern?
There was concern with connections between people,
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For content of contemporary literature, what was increasingly explored?
Interpretations of the past,
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For content of contemporary literature, how are outsiders increasingly presented?
-Open-mindedness and courage comes from being an outsider,
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For content of contemporary literature, what is presented in literature about escaping what?
Escaping those ways of living that blind and dull the human spirit,
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For genres of contemporary literature, what genres are used?
All genres are represented,
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What two new styles of writing was introduced/ more used in contemporary literature?
Fictional confessional/ diaries, -Autobiographical essays,
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For syles of contemporary fiction, what percent is written in first person?
50%
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What are emotions created from most contemporary literature?
-Emotion provoking, -Humourous irony,
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What are the effects of contemporary literature?
It is too soon to tell,
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For historical context of the contemporary period, why is the world growing smaller?
Due to ease of communications between societies,
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For historical context of contemporary society, why was the world launched into a new beginning?
-Due to a new century and a millenium
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For historical context of the contemporary period, that does media culture interpret?
-Values and events for individuals,
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Give two key contemporary literary figures?
-Seamus Heaney, -John Le Carre, -Ken Follett
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For content of the Anglo-Saxon period, what did literature have a strong belief in?

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Fate,

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For content of Anglo-Saxon literature, what did they admire?

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