Children's literacy

What is the definition of literacy?
Making meanings from sounds
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What is the traditional model of literacy?
Follows the pattern of: reading, writing, spelling, genre awareness approach.
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What is the developmental model of literacy?
Children learn about writing before being able to do it by seeing written models e.g. calendars, posters and cards. They believe that writing is learnt simultaneously with reading, if not before.
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Which theorist talked about community literacy?
Shirley Brice
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What did Shirley Brice say about community literacy?
Middle class community developed literacy formally using books whereas other communities weren't as formal as they used oral stories. Middle class children did better at school as 'formal literacy' met the school's expectations.
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Which theorist talked about categories of children's storybook reading?
Sulzby
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What did Sulzby say?
There are 4 stages of children reading storybooks: 1) pointing and labelling 2) reading through illustrations 3) telling story through language 4) reading conventionally
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What did Ferreiro say about children's writing?
Sometimes children think they way you write words correlates with the physical representations of what they're talking about. They then realise only letters matters.
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What did McGee and Richgels study?
The difference between how a child understands reading and writing as to how an adult understands it.
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Who studied emergent literacy?
Marie Clay
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According to Marie Clay, what happens between the ages of 0-3 years for reading and writing?
Development is pushed by social situations and between 2-3 years they can talk about what they're reading.
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According to Marie Clay, what happens between the ages of 3-4 years for reading?
Children start to read their favourite books but they mostly on memory and rely on pictures. They can't read and start to mimic book by reading properly.
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According to Marie Clay, what happens between the ages of 3-4 years for writing?
Children start to experiment with scribbles and they mock handwriting. Children maintain their intention to create meaning.
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According to Marie Clay, what happens at the age of 5 with reading?
They become emergent readers as they're exposed to a literacy rich environment. They also develop directionality and gather a concept of prints and grapheme-phoneme correspondence.
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According to Marie Clay, what happens at the age of 5 with writing?
Children create random letter strings and can plan writing and discuss plans.
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What is the look and see approach?
Children learn and recognise whole words by sight (rather than phonemes) and they focus on meaning.
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What is a criticism of the look and see approach?
1) It doesn't equip children to read for themselves 2) It means they have to memorise words
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What is the psycholinguistic approach?
The reader is responsible for working out what words mean and when they get stuck they have to look for cues in the text. Meant to focus on meaning rather than symbols. The 3 cues are: semantic, syntactic and grapho-phonic.
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What is a criticism of the psycholinguistic approach?
It relies heavily on the support of a caregiver and some people don't have the capacity to help.
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What is the phonic approach?
Teaches children to recognise letters and letter combinations in terms of sound. This means children can 'sound out' unfamiliar words.
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How many stages of reading did Chall develop?
6 stages (0-5)
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How old does a child have to be in for stage 0 and what does it involve?
0-6 months - the pre-reading stage, characterised by growth in knowledge and spoken language, have an increased control of words, syntax is apparent, knowledge of print is developed and they do 'pretend reading'.
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How old does a child have to be in for stage 1 and what does it involve?
1-2 years - children have grapheme-phoneme correspondence, acquire a general understanding of the spelling-sound system and direct teaching of decoding accelerates.
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How old does a child have to be in for stage 2 and what does it involve?
2-3 years - children learn to apply knowledge gained in stage 1, learn to recognise words and complex phonic elements and oral reading of stories becomes more fluent.
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How old does a child have to be for stage 3 and what does it involve?
Phase A is 4-6 years and phase B is 7-9 years - new knowledge, info and thoughts are learned through reading, growth in vocab and background knowledge is essential, increased range of materials e.g. newspapers/magazines.
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What's the difference between phase A and phase B in stage 3 of Chall's stages of reading?
Children in phase A have a limited vocab and background knowledge and reading is most developed when it's from one viewpoint and in phase B children start to confront different viewpoints and begin to analyse and criticise.
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How old does a child have to be for stage 4 and what does it involve?
Secondary education - have to deal with more than one viewpoint, look at textbooks in greater depth, have competing theories and multiple viewpoints and study skills in reading is beneficial.
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How old does a child have to be for stage 5 and what does it involve?
18+ years - readers select material to serve their purpose, they have to analyse, synthesize and make judgements, reading is constructive, and they construct knowledge and understand from reading what others have written.
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What is insertion?
When a child adds extra letters to a word.
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What is omission?
When a child misses letters out of a word.
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What is substitution?
Substituting one letter for another (normally based on appearance or sound).
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What is transposition?
Reversing the order of letters in words - the child clearly knows the letter just doesn't get the correct order.
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What is phonetic-spelling?
When the child uses sound awareness to guess letters in a word.
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What is over generalization of spelling rules?
Over generalising a rule e.g. using 'ough' to make the /ow/ sound.
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What is salient sounds?
When children write using key sounds in a word and missing out non-essential letters.
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How many spelling stages did Gentry develop and what are they?
5 - precommunicative, semiphonetic, phonetic, transitional and correct.
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According to Gentry, what is the precommunicative stage?
Where children are limited through scribbling, shows understanding that symbols have meaning. They also use a range of symbols and show some decipherable letter shapes but don't make sound-symbol connections.
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According to Gentry, what is the semiphonetic stage?
When children can link letter shapes and sounds, they show an awareness of word boundaries and how writing is organised on a page.
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According to Gentry, what is the phonetic stage?
When children understand that all phonemes can be represented by graphemes, have to also make sound-symbol connections. They have a small vocab and can recognise few words.
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According to Gentry, what is the transitional stage?
When children can combine phonetic knowledge with visual memory and they have to show an awareness of combinations of letters and letter patterns.
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According to Gentry, what is the correct stage?
When children demonstrate knowledge of the spelling system and rules using mostly correct spelling and using a large vocab.
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How many stage did Rothery develop for the genres children have?
4 - observation, recount, report and narrative.
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According to Rothery, what is an observation as a genre?
It's an observation followed by an evaluative comment.
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According to Rothery, what is a recount as a genre?
It's a chronological sequence of real life events and follows the structure of: orientation, event and reorientation.
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According to Rothery, what is a report as a genre?
It's a factual report of something which isn't chronological.
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According to Rothery, what is a narrative as a genre?
A story genre which follows the structure: orientation, complication, resolution, coda.
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What is the creative model of learning?
The idea that children should be allowed to be creative before learning content otherwise it put them off. Teachers should encourage enjoyment and then the child will be less afraid of making a mistake (intrinsic motivation).
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What are the advantages of the creative model?
It causes intrinsic motivation, it allows for creativity and individuality and children are writing for enjoyment, not assessment.
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What are the disadvantages of the creative model?
Some rules may be left out, very hard to standardise and test creativity, and leaves alot down to chance as if someone has a bad education provider some things may not be put across properly as there's no way of assessing level of teaching.
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What is the rule based model?
When a child learns the rules and then applies it. Then they develop rapidly in their development of producing writing for an appropriate audience (extrinsic motivation).
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What are the advantages for the rule based model?
Easy to test knowledge and can be standardised and rules won't be left out, very systematic.
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What are the disadvantages of the rule based model?
Doesn't cause intrinsic motivation, doesn't allow for creativity and children most likely won't be writing for enjoyment.
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What are Abbott's metaphors?
He says that children who are taught through the rule based model are 'battery chickens' and children who are taught through the creative model are 'free range chickens'.
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How many stages did Kroll develop for the process of development are what are they?
4 - preparatory, consolidation, differentiation, integration.
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According to Kroll, how old does a child have to be to fit in the preparatory stage and what does it involve?
18 months+ - children develop the basic motor skills needed for writing and they begin to learn the basics of the spelling system.
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According to Kroll, how old does a child have to be to fit into the consolidation stage and what does it involve?
6-8 years - children write in the same way they speak, use a lot of colloquialisms, use short declarative statements, not sure on how to end a sentence and begin to express ideas in the form of a basic sentence with poor punctuation.
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According to Kroll, how old does a child have to be to fit into the differentiation stage and what does it involve?
8-15 years - more aware of difference between spoken and written language, understand different genres, begin to structure work following guidelines, use more complex grammar and sentence structure and punctuation becomes more accurate and consistent
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According to Kroll, how old does a child have to be to fit into the integration stage and what does it involve?
15+ years - their writings more accurate and have a wide vocab, understand that style can change according to audience and purpose, narrative and descriptive skills improve and develop a personal writing style.
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How do children develop lexically?
Initially produce monosyllabic words and CVC combinations. They then develop through school who build schemas and guidelines etc.
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How do children develop grammatically?
As time goes on, they can create more complicated sentences. As they get older, they get better at positioning certain words in a sentence for effect.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the traditional model of literacy?

Back

Follows the pattern of: reading, writing, spelling, genre awareness approach.

Card 3

Front

What is the developmental model of literacy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which theorist talked about community literacy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did Shirley Brice say about community literacy?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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