LIPIDS

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Define the term aliphatic
Containing only H & C - polar. Hydrocarbons
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Define the term acyl
The fatty acid residue in a lipid joined to an alcohol by ester or amide linkage
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Define the term alkyl
No double bonds, completely saturated
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Define the term amphipathic
Containing both polar and non polar groups in the same molecule
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What are bile acids?
Steroid acids that help in the formation of micelles, helping to absorb dietary lipids in the gut
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What does emulsify mean?
Mixing lipids/oils with aqueous components
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What is saponification?
Break down of triglycerides in strong base to form the salt of the fatty acid
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Define surficants
e.g. Soap molecules that tend to concentrate on the surface of water
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Lipids can be extracted from cells using
Non polar solvents (chloroform/benzene)
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What are the four main classifications of lipids?
FAs; Simple lipids; Compound lipids; Derived lipids
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What are the two simple lipids?
Esters & Waxes
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What are the two compound lipids?
Phospholipids & Glycolipids
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What are the two derived lipids?
Steroids & Cholesterol
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How thick are biological membranes?
10nm
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The two layers of the lipid bilayer are called?
Leaflets
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Why does the bilayer form spontaneously?
Most energetically favourable conformation
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How many lipid tails do membrane lipid molecules have?
2
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How many lipid tails do detergent molecules have?
1
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Detergent molecules/molecules with one fatty acid chain do not form bilayers but form _______
Micelles
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Name a strong ionic detergent
SDS
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Two tailed amphipathic lipids can form which structures in water?
Liposomes
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One tailed amphipathic lipids can form which structures in water?
Micelles
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Why do TAGs not form a bilayer in water?
Small and weak polar heads
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Which two types of lipid commonly form micelles?
Fatty acids and detergents
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What shape do micelles have?
Conical
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Liposomes can be made targets for which process?
Macrophage phagocytosis
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The C-C bond in saturated fatty acids produces a bond angle of ____
109
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Double bonds in unsaturated fatty acids are susceptible to which type of reaction/
Peroxidation
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Is peroxidation occurs, which metabolite is formed, what effect does this have and which molecules overcome this?
Hyperoxides - oxidate membrane proteins. Antioxidants such as vitamin C and E
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Which technique can be used to analyse fatty acids
Gas chromatography
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In gas chromatography which two things do the analysis
Flame Ionisation Detector (FID) & Thermal Conductivity Detector (TCD)
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What are the four major roles of fatty acids in the body?
Energy stores; Membrane components; Keep membrane proteins; Fatty acid derivatives
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Where are TAGs broken down in the body?
Muscle and liver
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What is the 1st step in TAG breakdown?
Lipase hydrolysis to yield free fatty acids and glycerol
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What is the 2nd step in TAG breakdown?
Activation of fatty acids by attachment to CoA forming acyl CoA molecules
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What is the 3rd step of TAG breakdown?
Transport of acyl CoA molecules into the mitochondrial matrix by the carnitine shuffle
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What is the 4th step of TAG breakdown?
Beta oxidation by a cyclical sequence of oxidation, hydration, oxidation and thiolysis
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What is the energy yield for a gram of fatty acids? And for carbs?
~39 kJ / 17 kJ
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Where does fatty acid biosynthesis take place?
Liver and adipose tissues
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What is used as a reductant in fatty acid biosynthesis?
NADPH
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Where in the cell does fatty acid synthesis take place?
Cytosol
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Pancreatic lipase breaks down dietary TAGs to?
Monoacylglycerol and two free fatty acids
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Which co enzyme is needed for pancreatic lipase function?
Colipase
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What are waxes?
Esters of long chain fatty acids and long chain alcohols
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Give an example of a wax
Myricyl Palmitate
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What are the two main types of phospholipid?
Phosphoacylglycerol / Sphingomyelin
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What does sphingosine have built in?
Its own hydrocarbon tail
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Describe structure of phosphoacylglycerol
Alcohol / Phosphate / Glyercol / 2 x Fatty Acid
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Describe structure of sphingomyelin
Choline / Phosphate / Sphingosine / Fatty Acid
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What are two common phospholipids?
Lecithin / Cephalin
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Which amino alcohol does lecithin contain?
Choline
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Which amino alcohol does cephalin contain?
Ethanolamine
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What is the chemical formula for choline?
CH2CH2N+(CH3)3
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What is the chemical formula for ethanolamine?
CH2CH2N+H3
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What is the other name for lecithin?
Phosphatidylcholine
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What is sphingosine?
A long chain amino alcohol with a built in fatty acid chain
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Fatty Acid + Sphingosine ---> _________ + ________
Ceramide + Water
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What is a glycolipid?
When a carbohydrate chain is associated with phospholipids at the surface of cell membranes
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What are the two types of glycolipid?
Cerebroside / Ganglioside
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Both types of glycolipid are based on _____
Sphingosine
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What is NANA?
Sialic acid
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Cholesterol is a percursor for?
Steroid hormones and bile salts
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What is a ceramide?
Fatty acid and Spingosine
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Define the term acyl

Back

The fatty acid residue in a lipid joined to an alcohol by ester or amide linkage

Card 3

Front

Define the term alkyl

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define the term amphipathic

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are bile acids?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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