LING222: Word Classes

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How to classify words in terms of their morphological properties
the kind of bound morphemes, both inflectional and derivational, that tend to occur with words of a particular class
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How to classify words in terms of their semantic properties
the kinds of meanings that can be coded by words a particular class- these properties may be seen as underlying the structural properties, even if they're not always easy to identify. Entities can be concrete/abstract
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Major Categories- Open words:
have many members/ relatively complex/ full meanings e.g. nouns, pronouns,verbs, adjectives, adverbs
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Grammatical structures of nouns
typically refer to entities which tend to be relatively time stable. number/case. common derivational morphemes yielding: -ness/-ity/-er/-ee. proper vs. common
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Grammatical structures of pronouns
1.personal:i/me 2.indefinite: something/everyone/many/most 3.reflexive:myself 4.reciprocal:each other/one another 5.possessive:my/mine 6.demonstrative:this/that/those 7.interogative:who/whom/whose/that/those 8.relative:which/whose/that
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Grammatical structures of verbs
typically describe actions, events, processes or states. take some inflections: -s/-ed/-ing. the verb forms the central part of the sentence in terms of syntax
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Grammatical structures of adjectives
describe qualities of events, which are typically inherent in those entities and as such relatively concrete stable, though they may be less inherent. inflections: comparative/superlative. syntax: describe property of noun, found after intensifiers
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Grammatical structures of adverbs
express time/frequency/manner/location. sometimes inflector comparative&superlative degree. many derived from adjectives using -ly suffix
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Minor Categories-Closed Words:
have few members/ relatively small meanings/ do not allow for new members
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Grammatical structures of prepositions
relationship between things/events. syntax: often proceeded by the adverb 'right'
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Grammatical structures of conjunctions
join constituents together. may have same status: and/or. or not: when (subordinating conjunction)
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Grammatical structures of determiners
specify the number & definiteness of a noun phrase. syntax: occur before the the noun in a noun phrase
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How to classify words in terms of their semantic properties

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the kinds of meanings that can be coded by words a particular class- these properties may be seen as underlying the structural properties, even if they're not always easy to identify. Entities can be concrete/abstract

Card 3

Front

Major Categories- Open words:

Back

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Card 4

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Grammatical structures of nouns

Back

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Card 5

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Grammatical structures of pronouns

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