LING222 Grammatical Functions

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What does the subject do?
1.describes the primary topic of the clause- the most important participant of the discourse at the point when the clause is proceeded 2.instigators of the action/event
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What are non-prototypical subjects?
e.g. *theres* a rush of satisfaction- have very little meaning and are simply empty placeholders
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What does the predicate do?
describes what happens to the subject - usually what is left of the sentence once you take the subject
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What do objects do?
indirect objects describe who receives or benefits from something (recipients/benefactors). direct objects tend to be entities most affected by the action (patients)
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Complements...
refer to the same thing as the subject but in different words
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Adverbial complements...
may be adverbs or prepositional phrases, may be necessary to complete verb e.. i look *into my future*
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Adjuncts...
adverbials that provide extra information about the event described by the predicate e.e. when/how etc.
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Disjuncts & conjuncts
disjuncts: provide a comment (speaker's evaluation/attitude) to what is expressed by the whole sentence. conjuncts cont specify anything about the predicate , or about the speaker but they show how the sentence fits into the wider context
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Changes since OE
OE had a morphologically rich system. the collapse of this meant we had to rely more on word order to signal syntactic function
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Grammatical Functions
Word Classes
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Simple Sentences
Sentence Types
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Card 2

Front

What are non-prototypical subjects?

Back

e.g. *theres* a rush of satisfaction- have very little meaning and are simply empty placeholders

Card 3

Front

What does the predicate do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What do objects do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Complements...

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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