LING208 Phonology

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How many phones are in the world's languages?
800 (Ladefoged 2001)
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How many phones used in English
42-47
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What are vegetative sounds?
airflow is started then stopped (e.g. laughing/crying)
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What is cooing/ laughter?
signs of happiness/content
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What is vocal play?
mainly vowels- velars/bilabials/alveolars
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What is babbling?
no communicative intentions- two types (reduplicative/variegated)
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Mampe et al 2009 cross linguistic differences in production of sounds
French babies' crying can be distinguished from German babies' crying
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Oller and Ellers 1998 cross linguistic differences in sound production
more commonalities than differences across languages
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What are protowords?
(Bates 1976) specific words used consistently and often with gestures
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Sound inventory at the end of the babbling phase:
11 consonants & no consonant clusters
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Phonological processes:
deletion: /kul/ for school reduplication: /baba/ for bottle
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Main factors for development in phonology:
1. development of vocal tract 2. development of nervous system 3. experience with native language
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What is the high amplitude sucking test?
used to get information about phonological comprehension- babies like to hear sounds, need to suchk when they hear a new sound. They lose interest in repeating sounds, so **** when show interest (shows they know difference between old/new sound)
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What is the head turn technique
another method used to get information about phonological comprehension- the sound change is associated with a moving toy. Babies show anticipatory looks towards location of moving toy as they hear new sound
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What did Fifer (1980) find with regards to newborn's comprehension of sounds?
they prefer hearing their mother's voice over any female voice & can distinguish between native language and others
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What other things can newborns hear/ distinguish?
1. French babies **** more to French vs. Russian words 2. sleeping babies prefer speech with natural prosody 3. newborns remember what they have heard before birth
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What categorical perceptions can babies make?
VOT: lag between air passing through lips and vocal folds vibrating
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What are language specific perceptions from newborns?
Until 6-12m, Japanese infants can distinguish between /l/ and /r/ but cannot after.
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Phonological clues to word boundaries include:
1. pauses 2. words that tend to occur in isolation 3. frequent words 4. prosody 5. phonotactics 6. stress
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How many phones used in English

Back

42-47

Card 3

Front

What are vegetative sounds?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is cooing/ laughter?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is vocal play?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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