LING208 Language & Cognition

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Which areas of the brain process language?
Broca & Wernicke's areas
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Where is speech processed in the brain?
initially through the right and left auditory cortices, but then there is a dedicated network located in the left temporal lobe
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How is grammar processed?
Primarily in the left left prefrontal cortex, in a region roughly corresponding to Broca's area
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Where is meaning processed?
Seems to be distributed across a wide network of interconnected sites.
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Where are semantic relationships processed?
this learning activates parts of the left inferior frontal gyrus
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How are these circuits connected?
areas cannot be activated in isolation- information needs to be exchanged between them
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Where is language specialisation found in the brain?
in 95-98% of neurologically intact adults, this is in the left hemisphere
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How is cortical activation used in studying infant sensitivity to language?
by using forward and backward speech, as backward speech is unnatural and violates prosodic/phonotactic constraints on language
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Neuroimaging data indicates that...
functional hemispheric specialisation for language can be detected at birth or shortly after
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Why is the brain not adapted to literacy?
reading cannot rely on functionally pre-specified areas of the brain because the emergence of writing systems only emerged several thousand years ago
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How can we see if theres a critical period for language development?
1. we can examine the degree of recovery following a brain injury
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Card 2

Front

Where is speech processed in the brain?

Back

initially through the right and left auditory cortices, but then there is a dedicated network located in the left temporal lobe

Card 3

Front

How is grammar processed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Where is meaning processed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where are semantic relationships processed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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