LING208 Child Directed Speech

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How do we change our voices to address children?
raise pitch, produce intonation contours, speak louder, lengthen phonemes & speak slower (Fernald 1989)
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What can CDS prosody facilitate?
word segmentation & drawing child's attention to speech signal, as well as vowel discrimination
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How may CDS prosody hinder comprehension to children?
the rise in pitch may hinder vowel discrimination
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When do children begin to distinguish VOT?
one month of age (Eimas 1971)
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How does CDS use VOT?
mothers increase VOT for voiceless consonants, but only around 16 months of age, when VOT had already been mastered by children. In terms of vowels, there is evidence that mothers hyper-articulate vowels
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In what circumstances is VOT lowered?
in mother- child interactions, but not when talking to pets, showing its used to facilitate language learning. Also used in an informal circumstances to speak to children, perhaps to show intimacy
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How is grammar manipulated in CDS?
utterances addressed to younger children children are shorter and grammatically simpler (Ferguson 1977). Adults place new words at the end of utterances, in salient position, that makes it easier for learners to notice & remember them (Fernald 1991)
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How are gestures used in CDS?
when introducing new objects, gestures are more enthusiastic/ repeated (Brand 2002). This is not the case across the board though e.g. Italian mothers use simple gestures
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What is temporal synchrony, and at what age is this acquired?
at 4 months of age, infants refer vowels that match with the shape of a simultaneously presented mouth compared to vowels that do not match the shape of the mouth (Kuhl 1988)
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How may gestures help infants learn words?
helps facilitate infants learn the arbitrariness of signs- and help offer something the child can relate to (Golgate & Hellish 2010)
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Who else, other than mothers, use CDS
there is evidence that fathers, grandparents and older siblings use CDS (Shute 2001). Increases in pitch have been observed in fathers, but more restrained. Fathers address 5yo the same as adults
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Evidence that CDS is universal
converging observations from some languages have led some researchers to believe that cDS is universal (Falk 2004). However, not all languages have been looked at
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How is CDS correlated with emotions
In cultures where people are generally encouraged to express emotions openly, the prosodic features of CDS tend to be more exaggerated (Fernald et al. 1989)
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What have brain imaging studies shown in mothers?
the sight of an infant is a very strong positive mood inducer for mothers, and activation is strongest when looking at their wn child
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What have brain imaging studies shown in children?
positive reward from caregivers fosters secure attachment (Locke 2001)
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Do children prefer CDS?
it is well attested that 1mo children prefer CDS over ADS (Cooper 1990), but a 6mo, they know no difference between happy sounding CDS and happy sounding ADS (Singh 2002)
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How are tonal languages affected by CDS prosody
pitch modification might obscure the meaning- bearing properties of the word, therefore making it harder for infants to learn words
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How can CDS regulate children?
controls arousal states and behaviours, and stop children engaging in dangerous activities by distracting them (Fernald 1992)
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Does CDS share properties with other types of speech?
shares features with the way people talk to pets, foreigners, lovers and the elderly (Kemper 1994)
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How does CDS facilitate teaching language
e.g. politeness intonation contours
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Do cultural differences in language acquisition affect development?
in cultures where children are rarely addressed directly, they are included in polyadic speech meaning they learn long sentences, but when children are presented words in isolation, this is what they learn
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What are the effects of socio-economic and demographic affects on language development?
within western society, the amount of talk that children hear tends to increase with the socio economic status, as measured by maternal education and family income (Hoff 2003)
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Higher socio economic status is correlated with...
mothers talk more to their children, but they also produce a greater amount of words & more complex grammatical constructions
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How can CDS aid language if it is simpler?
the grammatical complexity in the input must be processable, and any language that is too complex will be tuned out
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How does parental responsiveness affect development?
the amount of time that parents & children spend in joint attention activities is an important predictor of language development
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What can CDS prosody facilitate?

Back

word segmentation & drawing child's attention to speech signal, as well as vowel discrimination

Card 3

Front

How may CDS prosody hinder comprehension to children?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When do children begin to distinguish VOT?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How does CDS use VOT?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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