Lifespan Changes in Sleep

Babies sleep a lot more than children & adults, and also have different sleep patterns & stages of sleep - tend to sleep about 16 hours a day but not ------------.
Continuously
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Babies usually wake up every hour or so because their sleep cycles are shorter than the adult 90 minute cycle - infants have sleep stages which are ------- to adult sleep, called quiet sleep & active sleep (immature versions of SWS and REM).
Similar
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At birth there's more active sleep than adult REM sleep; about half of infant sleep is spent in ------ sleep.
Active
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Adults can usually go fairly directly into the state of deep sleep (quiet sleep) whereas infants in the early months enter sleep through the initial period of ----- sleep & after 20 minutes they gradually enter deep sleep.
Light
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By the age of 6 months a circadian rhythm has become established (1 main sleep-wake cycle) & by the age of 1 year infants are usually sleeping mainly at night, with 1 or 2 ---- during the day.
Naps
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The periods of deep sleep lengthen and there's a reduction in the amounts of active/REM sleep - it's not known if REM activity is accompanied by dreaming as babies & children are too ----- to provide reliable subjective reports.
Young
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By the age of 5, children have --- patterns that look like those of an adult but they are still sleeping more (about 12 hours per day) & having more REM activity (about 30% of total sleep time).
EEG
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Boys sleep slightly ---- than girls.
More
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During childhood it's not uncommon for children to experience a variety of ----------- (sleep disorders such as sleep walking or night terrors).
Parasomnias
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During childhood the need to sleep decreases, but in adolescence it -------- slightly, to about nine or ten hours a night.
Increases
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Circadian rhythms also change so that teenagers feel naturally more awake later at night and have more ---------- getting up early (a phase delay).
Difficulty
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'Normal' adult sleep is about eight hours per night, with 25% in REM sleep - childhood parasomnias (sleep walking) are more rare in adulthood but there's an increasing frequency of other sleep --------- (insomnia & apnoea).
Disorders
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With increasing age, total sleep time stays about the same but older people have more difficulty going to sleep & wake up more frequently (up to 6 times a night) - may have to nap during the day to ------- their sleep needs.
Satisfy
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With old age the pattern of sleep changes; REM sleep decreases to about 20% of total sleep time & the amount of slow wave sleep is considerably ------- to as little as 5% or even none (other kinds of NREM sleep increase).
Reduced
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Older people also experience a phase advance of --------- rhythms - feeling sleepier earlier in the evening & waking up earlier.
Circadian
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One suggestion for why babies sleep pattern are so different from adults is that it's an -------- mechanism to make their parents' life easier - daytime sleeping means that parents can get on with their chores, enhancing survival.
Adaptive
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----------- has adaptive benefits too - babies have small stomachs & need feeding regularly - a baby who sleeps soundly through the night might not be woken by feeling cold or hungry.
Nightwaking
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Infants' greater amount of active/REM sleep may be explained in terms of the relative ---------- of the infant brain & is related to the considerable amount of learning that's taking place.
Immaturity
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REM sleep has been linked to the production of ----------------- & to consolidation of memories - explains why babies have a greater amount of active/REM sleep - further supported by the fact premature babies spend 90% of their time in active sleep.
Neurotransmitters
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In adolescence ------- production changes - hormones are primarily released at night & therefore sleep patterns are disturbed, leading to sleep deprivation.
Hormone
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Many of the correlates of sleep ----------- are similar to those thought to be 'typical' of puberty (irritability, moodiness, changes in school performance & changes in motivation).
Deprivation
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Who says hormonal changes can also explain the upset to the circadian clock, which has been described as a delayed sleep phase syndrome?
Crowley et al
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Who recommends that schools should begin their day later to accommodate the poor attention spans of adolescents in the early morning?
Wolfson and Carskadon
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The common perception is that a good night's sleep is related to good health, but several studies have found there's an increased --------- risk associated with too much sleep.
Mortality
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Who surveyed over 1 million people & found that people sleeping for only 6/7 hours had a reduced mortality risk, whereas those sleeping for 8 hours had a 15% increase in risk of death & the risk was over 30% for those sleeping 10 hours?
Kripke et al
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There may be other intervening --------- that cause the link between sleep duration & mortality (e.g. underlying illness may lead to increased sleep needs & to increased mortality).
Variables
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Reduced sleep may not be a consequence of physiological changes but may be explained in terms of actual problems ------- asleep, such as sleep apnoea or medical illness.
Staying
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Problems staying asleep are also explained by the fact that deep sleep (SWS) is reduced in old age, so the older sleeper is more ------ woken.
Easily
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The reduction in SWS leads to reduced production of ------ hormone (as this is mainly produced in SWS), which may explain some of the symptoms associated with old age - such as lack of energy & lower bone density.
Growth
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IDA - This approach is important as it recognises sleep patterns ------ as we age - for a long time psychologists ignored this and thought there was 1 pattern that applied to all ages - this association of age & sleep has led to new understanding.
Change
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IDA - There are useful ------------ of this research, such as Wilson & Carskadon's suggestion that school should start later to accommodate delayed sleep phase syndrome.
Applications
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IDA - Researchers have also suggested that the effects of ageing could be reduced by improving sleep 'hygiene' - improving the ----------- of sleep. (e.g. napping may reduce the amount of deep sleep during the night -> should resist having naps).
Healthiness
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IDA - psychologists assume about sleep behaviour based on research that's been largely conducted with American & British samples - such research assumes there're no cultural ---------- on sleep behaviour but this may not be true. (Cultural bias).
Influences
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Babies usually wake up every hour or so because their sleep cycles are shorter than the adult 90 minute cycle - infants have sleep stages which are ------- to adult sleep, called quiet sleep & active sleep (immature versions of SWS and REM).

Back

Similar

Card 3

Front

At birth there's more active sleep than adult REM sleep; about half of infant sleep is spent in ------ sleep.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Adults can usually go fairly directly into the state of deep sleep (quiet sleep) whereas infants in the early months enter sleep through the initial period of ----- sleep & after 20 minutes they gradually enter deep sleep.

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

By the age of 6 months a circadian rhythm has become established (1 main sleep-wake cycle) & by the age of 1 year infants are usually sleeping mainly at night, with 1 or 2 ---- during the day.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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