Life changes

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 06-04-14 11:33
If our normal routine is disrupted what does this mean?
We have to do things we would normally do on 'auto-pilot', which means we have to use more 'psychic energy'.
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What happens as the life change gets bigger?
More adjustment has to be made, therefore more energy has to be used.
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Who studied the effect on life changes on stress?
Holmes and Rahe.
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What did Holmes and Rahe notice before starting their study?
That many patients with heart disease reported significant life events in the year leading up to the heart disease, so introduced the concept of life events as a change in life circumstances that require some adjustment.
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Define life changes.
Events in a person's life that require significant adjustment in various aspects of a person's life, and are significant sources of stress.
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What is the scale that is used to measure life changes and stress?
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale.
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What is the Social Readjustment Rating Scale measured in?
Life change units.
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Define major life events.
A source of stress regardless of whether they're positive or negative.
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What is the Social Readjustment Rating Scale based on?
The premise that both positive or negative events can increase stress levels and make one more susceptible to illness and mental health problems.
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Why are both positive and negative life events stressful?
Because they place new demands on the individual, who has to make significant amount of adjustment.
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What do critics suggest about life event affects on stress?
That it's the quality of the event that's crucial, with undesired, unscheduled and uncontrolled changes being the most harmful.
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How was the Social Readjustment Rating Scale created?
Holmes and Rahe made a list of 43 stressful events. They asked a large sample to rate how stressful they thought each event would be. Death of spouse was given 100 as most people agreed it was the most stressful. Other events were ranked in relation.
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How would you take the test for stressful life events?
You would consider events that have taken place in the last 12 months and add up the values of each item.
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What are the scores for susceptibility to illness and mental health problems?
Low ≤149, Mild 150-199, Moderate 200-299, Major ≥300.
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What were the findings of Holmes and Rahe's study?
There was low correlation between high SRRS score and illness.
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What are the strengths of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?
They used volunteers to ensure the scales was an objective as possible. Although they used mainly middle class Americans, other studies within and out of the USA agree with the scores, increasing validity.
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What are the weaknesses of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?
It relies on self-report, and it depends on how they feel at the time. Some people might not admit some life changes. Both limit validity. It's good a predicting illness for a large group but not 1 individual. Can't establish cause and effect.
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What reduces the validity of the Social Readjustment Rating Scale?
It relies on people's memory, which may not be accurate or reliable.
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Who did the key study into life changes?
Rahe et al.
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What was the hypothesis of Rahe et al.'s study?
The number of life events a person experienced positively correlates with illness.
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What did Rahe et al. used to test their hypothesis?
The Social Readjustment Rating Scale.
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Who did Rahe et al. aim to study?
The 'normal' population.
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What was the procedure of Rahe et al.'s study?
A military version of the SRRS was given to men aboard 3 US Navy ships. They filled it in before duty, noting life experiences over the last 6 months. An illness score was calculated on the number, type and severity of illness during duty.
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What were the findings of Rahe et al.'s study?
There was a positive correlation between SRRS score and illness score.
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Who did Micheal and Ben Zur study in their experiment?
130 men and women, half divorced and half widowed.
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What was the procedure of Micheal and Ben Zur's study?
They looked at participants levels of life satisfaction.
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What were the findings of Micheal and Ben Zur's study?
The widows had a lower life satisfaction score after their loss, and divorced participants showed the opposite because they could be with a new partner or out of an abusive relationship.
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What did Kiecolt-Glaser's study show?
That Nk cell activity was worse for students who scored highly on the SRRS and how their lifestyle was affected.
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What might cause the positive correlation between SRRS score and illness.
Anxiety.
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What did Brown suggest?
That people with high anxiety would be more likely to report negative life events and would be more prone to illness.
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What has research into the relationship between life changes and stress provided and insight into?
The cause of suicide.
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What did Heikkinen and Lönnquist examine?
Possible causes during the last 3 months preceding suicide among 219 victims in Finland.
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What did Heikkinen and Lönnquist find?
Differences in life events were found across age groups. Family discord, loss, finance and unemployment were common in young victims. Physical illness was most important in older victims, not living alone and lack of social opportunities.
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Card 2

Front

What happens as the life change gets bigger?

Back

More adjustment has to be made, therefore more energy has to be used.

Card 3

Front

Who studied the effect on life changes on stress?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Holmes and Rahe notice before starting their study?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define life changes.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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