Life in Germany

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Define the term 'November 1918 Revolution'
It was when Kaiser Wilhem 2nd was forced to abdicate, Germany became a republic under president Ebert and the new republic signed to an armistice
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When did Kaiser Wilhem abdicate?
9th of November
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When did Germany become a republic?
10th of November
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When did the New Republic sign to the armistice?
11th of November
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What is the main reason for the revolution of November 1918?
Germanys Military Defeat in WW1- Germany surrendered to avoid occupation. USA had entered war against Germany by 1918 and by Nov 1918 American and British forces were advancing on Germany.
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What are other reasons for the revolution of 1918?
Hardship on Germany Homefront, British blockades, food shortages, Spanish flu epidemics, Sailors Mutiny in the port of Kiel
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When was the Sailors Mutiny in the port of Kiel?
October, 1918
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What was the Stab in the Back Theory?
The belief that the German Army had been on the verge of winning the war in 1918, but they were portrayed by Ebert who agreed to the armistice
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Was the theory true?
No
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What was the result of the Stab in the Back theory?
The new Republic was unpopular from the start?
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How did the Stab in the back theory help the Nazis?
Hitler used it to degrade Ebert and gain more support for the Nazis.
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How was the Weimar Republic set up?
federation on 18 states, each with it's own parliament, police and laws.
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When was the national parliament, Reichstag, set up?
January 1919
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Why did the Reichstag meet at Weimar?
Berlin was unsafe because of the fighting
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what two decisions did the Reichstag make make in January 1919?
1) it elected Ebert as President 2) it set up a new constitution for Germany
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What were the strengths of the new constitution?
1) All parties were given a fair share of seats in the Reichstag 2) All Germans had equal rights including the right to vote.
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What does article 48 State?
The states kept their own traditions and control over local affairs
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What were the main weaknesses of the new constitution?
1) Proportional representation led to many small parties which gave extremists a voice, as a result no one party could secure majority in the Reichstag 2) many small parties were formed to form coalitions which were short lived
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What was the aim of the Treaty of Versailles?
To weaken Germany so she didn't wage another war against the west
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What were the territorial terms of the treaty?
Alsalce-Lorraine to France; West Posen, upper Silesia and Posen to Poland; Eupen-Malmedy to Belgium; Danzig and Memel under League of Nations control, Saarland under league of Nations control for 15 years; German became 'mandates'
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What were the reparations of the treaty?
War guilt cause (article 231) allowed Allies to demand compensation from Germany to pay war damages; in 1921 this was set at £6.6 million, to be payed in instalments
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What did article 231 say?
Germany were responsible for the war
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What were the military terms of the treaty?
No military aircraft or submarines; Navy reduced to 5 battleship and 15,000 sailors; army reduced to 100,000
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Why was there opposition in Germany to the treaty?
They elected President Wilson who had promised a fair treaty, it also blamed Germany for the war when they felt it was self defence
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Who were the Spartacists led by?
Rosa Luxemberg and Karl Leibnknecht
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What were the Spartacists inspired by?
Communist takeover of Russia, 1917
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Why didn't the Spartacists like President Ebert or the Social Democrats?
They felt they would favour the middle class rather than the working class
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When did the Spartacists try to seize power of Berlin?
January 1919
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Why did the Spartacists attempt to seize power fail?
It was badly organised
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What did the Friekorps do to the Spartacists to crush them?
Shot Luxember and Liebknecht
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Why was the Spartacists uprising important?
Highlighted that the Weimer Republic was weak. The uprising left the goverment dependent on the army
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What was the Kapp Putsch?
In March, 1920, Dr Woldgang Kap, an extreme nationalist, used a private army of Friekorps to seize power in Berlin
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Why did Kapp try to seize power?
The Friekorps hated the Treaty
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What were the consequences of the Kapp Putsch?
The Weimar fled from Berlin and organised a general strike. Kapp fled to sweeden
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Why was the Kapp Putsch significant?
The German Army refused to move against the Kapp even though they are meant to be supporting the Republic
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What are the statistics for the rapid growth of membership for the Nazi party?
6,000 in 1922, 50,000 by the end of 1923
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What was Hitlers main ability which helped gain support?
Public Speaking
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What was the point of the Nazi's 25 point programme?
To appeal to as many groups as possible
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When did the French troops occupy the Ruhr?
January 1923
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What happened at the occupation of Ruhr?
French and Belgium troops marched into the Ruhr industry area of Germany
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What was the reason of the occupation of Ruhr?
The German government was unable to to make their first reparation payment in 1922
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How did Germany react to the occupation of Ruhr?
Many German worker chose passive resistance and went on strike, some workers burned down factories and fought with the French troops
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What was the Social Impact of the French invasion of Ruhr?
It united the German people against the French
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What was the Political Impact of the French invasion of Ruhr?
The popularity of the Weimar government temporarily increased
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What was the Econmoic Impact of the French invasion of Ruhr?
It was disastrous, the government had to print more money
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What was Hyperinflation?
When prices go up by ten, a hundred or thousands in a very short period
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When did Hyperinflation hit Germany?
1923
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What was the immediate cause of Hyperinflation?
Government had printed too much money and it lost all it's value
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What were the long term causes of Hyperinflation?
The Wiemar was short of money after WW1
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What Germans benefitted from Hyperinflation?
Germans who had borrowed money saw their debts wiped over night, Businessmen took over small businesses, Foreigners could swap dollars for millions of marks. People with property values fell. Farmers. Upperclass who had land.
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Who suffered from Hyperinflation?
Pensions became worthless, Peoples savings lost value, Small businesses, people couldn't afford essentials to live
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

When did Kaiser Wilhem abdicate?

Back

9th of November

Card 3

Front

When did Germany become a republic?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

When did the New Republic sign to the armistice?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is the main reason for the revolution of November 1918?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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