Liberalism Key Words

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Feudalism
Fixed social hierarchies and a rigid pattern of obligations
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Divine right
Earthly rulers are chosen by God and thus wield unchallengeable authority. A defence of monarchical absolutism
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Absolutism
Politcal power concentrated in the hands of a single individual or small group (i.e. monarchy)
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Classical liberalism
Maximising the realm of unconstrained individual action, an established minimal state and free-market economics
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Modern liberalism
A qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development
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The enlightenment
A challenge to traditional beliefs in religion, politics and learning in general in the name of reason and progress
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Atomism
Society is made up of a collection of self-interested and self-sufficient individuals - or atoms.
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Freedom
The ability to think and act as one wished without restraint
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Negative freedom
The absence of external restrictions or constraints on the individual, allowing freedom of choice
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Positive freedom
Self-mastery or self-realisation: the achievement of autonomy and the development of human capacities
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Paternalism
Authority exercised from above for the guidance and support of those below
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Justice
A moral standard of fairness and impartiality
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Equality
The principle that humans are of identical worth and are thus entitle to be treated the same way
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Meritocracy
Rule by those with merit. Hierarchy is established based on ability rather than "natural order"
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Pluralism
A belief in diversity or choice, or the theory that political power is or should be widely and evenly dispersed
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Toleration
Forbearance, a willingness to accept views or action with which one is in disagreement
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Social contract theory
A hypothetical agreement between individuals through which a state is formed in order to avoid the "state of nature"
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State of nature
A pre-politicized societ characteried by unrestrained freedom and he absence of established authority
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Devolution
The transfer of power from central government to subordinate regional bodies
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Liberal democracy
The combination of both limited government and a system of regular and competitive elections
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Civil liberty
The private sphere of existence that is not infringed upon by governments
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Civil society
A realm of autonomous associations and groups, formed by private citizens that enjoy independence from government
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Majoritarianism
A belief in majority rule
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Utilitarianism
A moral and political philosophy that evaluates 'goodness' in terms of pleasure and pain
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Natural rights
God-given rights that are fundamental to human beings and are therefore inaleable
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Human rights
Rights to which people are entitled by virtue of being human
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Mercantilism
A school of thought that emphasises the state's role in managing international trade and delivering prosperity
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Market fundamentalism
An absolute faith in the free market
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Individuality
Self-fulfilment achieved through the realisation of an individuals distinctive or unique identity and qualities
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Altruism
Concern for the interests and welfare of others
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Welfare state
A state that takes primary responsibility for the social welfare of its citizens
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Card 2

Front

Earthly rulers are chosen by God and thus wield unchallengeable authority. A defence of monarchical absolutism

Back

Divine right

Card 3

Front

Politcal power concentrated in the hands of a single individual or small group (i.e. monarchy)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Maximising the realm of unconstrained individual action, an established minimal state and free-market economics

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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