Liberalism - Key Thinkers

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CLASSICAL - John Locke (Justice)
Protective democracy: the acknowledgment that there will be an imbalance in wealth and the assumption that the elite will be in power.
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BOTH - Jeremy Bentham (Justice)
The greatest good for the greatest number
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MODERN - Beveridge (Justice)
Citizens have a right to be protected by the welfare state "from the cradle to the grave"
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MODERN - John Maynard Keynes (Justice)
Economic management. Tax and spend policy.
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CLASSICAL - J.S.Mill (Freedom)
Individual freedom should only be restricted to prevent harm to the freedom of others
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CLASSICAL - Thomas Hobbes (Freedom)
Individuals need to consent to be rules over by a powerful sovereign to prevent a 'war of all against all'
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CLASSICAL - John Locke (Freedom)
The social contract
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CLASSICAL - Adam Smith (Freedom)
The invisible hand: the economy is self-regulating and should not be managed by the government
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MODERN - T. H. Green (Freedom)
Positive freedom: the state should intervene in order to enable individual self-fulfillment
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CLASSICAL - John Locke (Individual)
The 'night-watchman' state
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CLASSICAL - Herbert Spencer (Individual)
Social darwinism: inequality is natural and should be left alone
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BOTH - Emmanuel Kant (Individual)
Humans are unique and equally valuable.
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CLASSICAL - Emmanuel Kant (Reason)
Humans have the capacity to behave rationally.
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MODERN - Rawls (Reason)
The difference principle: inequalities should be manufactured to benefit those who are least well off in society
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BOTH - Voltaire (Tolerance)
"I may detest what you say, but I defend to the death your right to say it"
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Card 2

Front

The greatest good for the greatest number

Back

BOTH - Jeremy Bentham (Justice)

Card 3

Front

Citizens have a right to be protected by the welfare state "from the cradle to the grave"

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Economic management. Tax and spend policy.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Individual freedom should only be restricted to prevent harm to the freedom of others

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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