Liberalism definitions

Classical liberalism
A tradition within liberalism that seeks to maximise the realm of unconstrained individual action, typically by establishing a minimal state and a reliance on market economics.
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Modern liberalism
A tradition within liberalism that provides a qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development.
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Atomism
A belief that society is made up of a collection of self interested and largely self-sufficient individuals rather than social groups.
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Freedom
The ability to think or act as one wishes.
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Negative freedom
The absence of external restrictions or constraints on the individual, allowing freedom of choice.
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Positive freedom
Self-mastery or self-realisation; the achievement of autonomy or the development of human capacities.
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Justice
A moral standard of fairness and impartiality; social justice is the notion of a fair or justifiable distribution of wealth and rewards in society.
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Equality
The principle that human beings are of identical worth or are entitled to be treated in the same way.
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Meritocracy
Literally, rule by those with merit, merit being intelligence plus effort; a society in which social position is determined exclusively by ability and hard work.
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Natural rights
All individuals are born with rights that are granted by God or nature.
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Self-regarding actions
An action that only or primarily effects yourself.
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Other-regarding actions
Actions that effect others. This can reduce other peoples freedom so the government should interfere.
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Self-actualisation
Reaching one's full potential.
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The five giants
Evils of society that prevent you from reaching self actualisation: Want, Disease, Ignorance, Idleness and Squalor.
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Social contract
In order to accept protection from the state, we give up some choices.
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Corruption
The abuse of powes by government in order to benefit yourself and to stay in power.
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Tyranny of the majority
Democracy comes down to the rule of the 51%. It is used by a majority to oppress a minority.
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Liberal democracy
A political regime in which a 'liberal' commitment to limited government is blended with a democratic belief in popular rule.
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Pluralism
Power is, or should be, dispersed.
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Natural equality
People are born equal, no one is worth more.
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The cycle of deprivation
The persistence of poverty and other forms of socio-economic disadvantage through generations. Poor parent=Poor child
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The veil of ignorance
All people are biases so we should imagine sitting behind a veil in order to be fair.
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Equality of opportunity
Each individual should have equal life chances.
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Laissez faire
Literally 'leave to do' ; the doctrine that economic activity should be entirely free from government interference.
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The hidden hand
The idea that goods will get to where they need to be as the markets are self-regulating.
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Social darwinism
Individuals make what they want and what they can of their own lives.
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Keynesianism
Mixed economy, managed capitalism.
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A public good
A good that everyone benefits for but individuals don't pay for, e.g. police.
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Altruism
Concern for the interests and welfare of others.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A tradition within liberalism that provides a qualified endorsement for social and economic intervention as a means of promoting personal development.

Back

Modern liberalism

Card 3

Front

A belief that society is made up of a collection of self interested and largely self-sufficient individuals rather than social groups.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The ability to think or act as one wishes.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The absence of external restrictions or constraints on the individual, allowing freedom of choice.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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