Lexical and Semantic Change- John Algeo's Classification of word formation

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Loans
Words borrowed from other languages, e.g. 'café'
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Composites
Words made up from combinations of words or parts of other words
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Affixation (form of Composites)
The use of prefixes and suffixes, e.g. (un)sympathetic, vapori(se)
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Compounding (form of Composites)
Combining/adding words together, e.g. postman
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Blends
Combines shortening and Compounding- Taking parts from two words and combining them together, e.g. 'brunch' from breakfast and lunch and 'smog' from smoke and fog
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Shortenings
Parts of words left out for economy
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Clippings (form of shortening)
Words clipped down to shortened forms, e.g. television- telly; refrigerator- fridge
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Initialisms (form of shortening)
Takes first letter of each word in a phrase which is sounded as each letter in the sequence, e.g. BBC; TV; SOS; ASAP
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Acronyms (form of shortening)
Takes the first letter of each word in a phrase to make a new word, e.g. 'scuba'- Self Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus
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Creations
Creation of a completely new word or expression- coinage
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Shifts (semantic change)
Shifts of meaning or 'functional shift'- words change their 'class', e.g. text (noun) to text (verb)
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Amelioration (form of shifts)
The meaning of the word is more positive than the original, e.g. 'pretty' used to mean 'cunning' or 'crafty'
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Pejoration (form of shifts)
The meaning of the word becomes more negative, e.g. 'wench' used to mean 'girl'
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Narrowing (form of shifts)
The meaning of the word narrows so that it includes fewer objects/ideas, e.g. 'weed' used to mean any plant
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Widening (form of shifts)
Meaning of the word broadens to include more objects/ideas, e.g. 'butcher' once meant slaughterer of goats
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Words made up from combinations of words or parts of other words

Back

Composites

Card 3

Front

The use of prefixes and suffixes, e.g. (un)sympathetic, vapori(se)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Combining/adding words together, e.g. postman

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Combines shortening and Compounding- Taking parts from two words and combining them together, e.g. 'brunch' from breakfast and lunch and 'smog' from smoke and fog

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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