Levels of protein structure

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  • Created by: racheon
  • Created on: 04-03-14 09:44
What is the sequence of amino acids determined by?
The DNA.
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How does the body avoid the chains of amino acids getting tangled or broken?
By stablising parts of them by coiling or pleating them as they are made.
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What are the coils and pleats of chains of amino acids held together by?
Hydrogen bonds.
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What does the amount of coiling or pleating of chains of amino acids depend on?
The types of amino acids, so it depends on the primary structure.
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What do the coils and pleats of chains of amino acids do once the whole chains is complete and a polypeptide is formed?
They come together in a specific way to form a specific 3D shape.
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What is the 3D shape of a polypeptide determined by, and what holds it in place?
The sequence of amino acids, and it's held in place by different bonds.
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How is the secondary structure of proteins formed?
When the chain of amino acids colis or folds.
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What does the coiling or folding of the chain of amino acids form?
An alpha helix of a beta pleated sheet.
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What holds the coils of a chain of amino acids in place?
Hyrdogen bonds.
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Are hydrogen bonds strong or weak?
Weak.
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How do hydrogen bonds give stability to parts of a protein molecule?
Lots of them form.
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How does the final 3D shape of a protein form?
When coils and pleats coil of fold, often with straight runs of amino acids in between.
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How is the 3D shape of a protein held in place?
By different bonds and interactions.
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What is a protein's tertiary structure vital to?
Its function.
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What does heating a protein do to it?
It increase the kinetic energy in the molecule, which causes it to vibrate and break some of the bonds holding the tertiary structure in place.
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Why are most bonds in a protein easily broken?
Because they're weak.
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What happens if enough heat is applied to a protein?
The whole tertiary structure can unravel and the protein will no longer function because it's been denatured in denauration.
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If the protein is cooled, will it's orginal structure reform?
No.
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What are the 2 main categories for the 3D shapes of proteins?
Globular and fibrous proteins.
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What are the features of globular proteins?
They tend to roll up into a compact globe or ball shaped structure, any hydrophobic R-groups are turned inwards towards the centre, while hydrophobic ones tend to be one the outside, making it water-soluble because water molecules can cluster around.
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What are the features of fibrous proteins?
It forms fibres, most have regular, repetitive sequences of amino acids and they're usually insoluble in water.
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Define secondary structure.
Coiling and pleating of parts of the polypeptide molecule.
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Define tertiary structure.
The overall 3D structure of the final polypeptide or protein molecule.
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Why does heating denature proteins?
Because their structure is changed by the breaking of hydrogen bonds and other weak interations, meaning protein can't function and it can't be restored by cooling.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How does the body avoid the chains of amino acids getting tangled or broken?

Back

By stablising parts of them by coiling or pleating them as they are made.

Card 3

Front

What are the coils and pleats of chains of amino acids held together by?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What does the amount of coiling or pleating of chains of amino acids depend on?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What do the coils and pleats of chains of amino acids do once the whole chains is complete and a polypeptide is formed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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