Levels of Processing

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Who created the LOP model?
Craik and Lockhart 1972
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What does this model focus on?
The structure of memory but the way in which it was processed
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What are the two types of rehearsal?
1. Maintenance rehearsal 2. Elaborative rehearsal
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Define maintenance rehearsal
Repeating a word/phrase over and over and over again e.g when trying to remember a persons name... Ellen Ellen Ellen
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Define elaborative rehearsal
associating something with another thing e.g the meaning of the term summer. Associating it with hot weather and ice-cream
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What are the three levels of processing?
1. Iconic 2. Auditory/Acoustic 3. Semantic
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Which is the deepest LOP?
Semantic
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Which is the shallowest LOP?
Iconic
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Define iconic processing
Processing is based on superfical characteristics such as colour and size. It is the shallowest level of processing
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Define auditory/phonological processing
Process is based on the sound of the information, such as rhymes. It is intermediate in regards to depth
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Define semantic processing
Process is based on the meaning of the information, category type. It is also the deepest level of processing
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What other processes, besides meaning, may lead to deep processing?
Elaborated rehearsal
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Explain Craik and Tulvings' study
They showed a series or words to participants and then asked them questions on what they looked like/sounded like and what they meant. It supports LOP as they found that the type on encoding(e.g visual) affected later recall
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Give 2 strengths of Levels of Processing
1. Provided a realistic and credible alternative to the structural approach to memory. 2. It explains why elaborate rehearsal is more effective than maintenance or rote rehearsal
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Give 2 limitations of Levels of Processing
1. There was no independent way of assessing whether processing was deep or shallow. 2. Theyy had not considered retrieval processes in sufficient detail
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Card 2

Front

What does this model focus on?

Back

The structure of memory but the way in which it was processed

Card 3

Front

What are the two types of rehearsal?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Define maintenance rehearsal

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Define elaborative rehearsal

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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