Left Realist explanations of crime

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How is Realism different to the traditional theories?
It takes the issue of crime seriously and its effects on victims seriously, aims to create practical solutions for reducing and dealing with crime and criminals
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What are the two different types of Realism and how do they differ?
Left Realism - Influenced by more radical and socialist ideas & Right Realism - More influenced by right-wing Conservative thinking
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What are three main concepts of Left Realism's explanation of crime?
Use official stastics for trends and patterns to response to crime but dont belive they are entirely accurate, Want to shape policies to solve crime so want gov to accept proposals, Focus on impact of crime individuals & communities
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What two problems do their crime prevention strageties aim to challenge?
Deprivation & Marginalisation - Critical cause of crimes
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Which Left Realist studied three things and what were they?
Jock Young - Realtive deprivation, Subculture & Marginalisation
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What did Young believe socilogists role was in crime and deviance?
Provide revelant & credible solutions for policies to limit harm crime does to poorer sections of the community
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Who thinks realtive depravation leads to crime and how?
Lea and Young - Only when realtive depravation experience, rising expectations for high sdtandards of living & limited means to achieve sucess (unemployed), exposed to values (media) that middle-class lifestyles and patterns of consumption are best
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What is marginalisation and how does it lead to crime?
Marginalisation is situation where some groups are more likely to suffer economic, social (eg young people in inner cities suffer more deprivation) & political deprivation (no way to influence decision makers so feel powerless)
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How does subcultures lead to crime?
Subcultures form from groups who suffer relative deprivation & marginalisation. Style, behaviour, values reflect problems they face. Not resistance as still located in values of wider society, but blocked off from sucess (due to marginalisation)
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What is the outcome of the three concepts?
Street crime and burglary commited largely by young males
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What was Hughes evaluation of Left Realism's explanation?
Fails to explain real causes of street crime, little evidence for offender's motives, Over-relies on flawed subcultural theory - Revived useful concepts, relative deprivation & problem street crime is for weaker groups, doesnt attack/glorify police
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What was Jones evaluation of Left Realism's explanation?
Fails to explain why not all who experience realtive deprivation commit crimes, never ask victims views on causes of crime, only use views of victims in urban areas where crime is higher - misleading of all crime
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Who talked about military-stle policing?
Kinsey et al
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What is the issue with military policing according to Kinsey et al?
Local communities dont trust police, dont give info to solve crime, resort to stop&search, CCTV, leads to mobilisation of bystanders, groups support picked on members, major social disturbances
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WHat does Kinsey think we should do about military style policing?
Improve realtionships with communities to get info, minimal policing, improve balance of police resources to types of crime
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What is an evaluation of Military style policing?
Makes sense to have more policing in urban areas with more violent crime, attempts have been made to improve relationships eg after McPherson report into insitutional racism, recruit more ethnic minority officers
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What does Young say about the peroid we're living in?
Late modernity - Insecurity, instability & exclusion make crime worse, deindustralisation, increased umemployement/poverty esp for young/ethnic minorities,destablished family/community life, less welfare spending, more marginalisation & exclusion
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What has increased the sense of relative deprivation in Late Modernity?
Greater inequality and individualism, Cultural inclusion (media promote consumerism) & economic exclusion (poor people excluded from oppurtunities)
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What happens to relative deprivation in Late Modernity?
Become generalised throughout all society, widespread resentment at unfair wages, m/c hate w/c for using welfare benefits
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How are the amounts and types of crime changing in Late Modern society?
Crime is more widespread throughout social structure, increase in hate crime, Less public consensus on right and wrong, informal controls less effective, public more intolerant, demand harsher formal controls & increased criminalisation
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Evaluation of individualism?
Young is wrong as crime rates are falling (OCS & CSEW), divorce rates decreasing so reduction in social breakdown
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Evaluation of Left Realism generally?
Ruggiero - Negelect corporate & organised crime, Sim (Marxist) says not realistic & ignore real causes of crime (Capitalism), Carlen (Feminist) says ignore women (domestic violence esp), reply is nope
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the two different types of Realism and how do they differ?

Back

Left Realism - Influenced by more radical and socialist ideas & Right Realism - More influenced by right-wing Conservative thinking

Card 3

Front

What are three main concepts of Left Realism's explanation of crime?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What two problems do their crime prevention strageties aim to challenge?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which Left Realist studied three things and what were they?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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