lee

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what is the background?
Sweetser (1987) proposed a folkloristic model of lying, which argued that cultural norms individuals internalise via experiences of socialisation, cognitive judgements on factuality of the statement + intention of speaker, will change morality of lie
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what is the aim?
To test the effect of culture on children’s moral evaluation and truth telling when comparing Canadian and Chinese children in situations in which the pro- and antisocial actions were denied or acknowledged.
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what was the first culture?
Culture conditions (Chinese children selected as they are raised in a communist/collectivist culture, with a school curriculum which promotes modesty and self-effacement- minimising one’s successes/good deeds, for the benefit of social cohesion.
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what was the second culture?
. Compared with Canadian children who represent an individualistic culture which encourages self-promotion in schools, and tolerates white lies to protect other’s feelings.both believe lying is wrong.
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what were the conditions?
x 3 age conditions (7, 9, 11 years) x 2 story conditions (physical: behaviours which are targeted towards objects/environment; social: behaviours which directly affect individuals)
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what were the other conditions?
x 2 deed conditions (anti-social or pro-social) x 2 protagonist statement conditions (lie or truth)
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what was the experimental design?
Quasi (IVs: culture; age) or Lab (IVs: Physical/social stories, anti-social/pro-social deeds, Lie/truth telling
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what was the experimental method?
Independent measures (IVs: Culture; age; Physical/social stories) * Repeated measures (IVs: pro-social/ anti-social deeds; Lie/truth telling)
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what was the sample? in china
120 Chinese children: 40 7-year olds, 40 9-year olds, 40 11-year olds from elementary schools from the provincial capital of Zhejiang. Equal balance of males and females. Half assigned randomly to the physical and half to the social stories condition
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what was the sample in china?
108 Canadian children of both genders: 36 7-year olds, 40 9-year olds, and 32 11-year olds from the provincial capital of New Brunswick. Most from middle class families. Approximately half assigned randomly to the physical/ half to the social stories
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what were the materials?
4 social and 4 physical stories (1 good deed/truth telling, 1 good deed/ lie telling, 1 bad deed/ truth telling, 1 bad deed/ lie telling).
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what was in the stories?
The deed was described, followed by a question on whether what the protagonist did was good or naughty. Then the statement the protagonist made about their deed was described, followed by the question of whether what the protagonist did was good/ not
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what was accompanied with the stories?
The story was accompanied by illustrations, and was translated into Chinese. The stories were depicted situations familiar to schoolchildren of both culture
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procedure part 1?
Rating scale explained to child: 7-point rating chart displaying very very good (three red stars), very good (two red stars), good (one red star), neither good nor naughty (a blue circle), naughty (one black cross), very naughty (two black crosses),
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procedure part 2?
4 stories (physical or social) read to each child individually
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procedure part 3?
For each story, the meaning of the rating scale was repeated and children were asked to rate the deed
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procedure part 4?
For each story, the meaning of the rating scale was repeated and children were asked to rate the protagonist’s statement on their deed (lie or truth telling).
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procedure part 5?
Ratings converted into quantitative data for analysis from +3 (very very good) to -3 (very very bad)
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what were the controls?
Counterbalanced- order of the good/bad deed, lie- and truth-telling stories was randomised.
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results/ conclusions 1?
All children rated truth-telling about pro-social deeds positively, and rated lie-telling about anti-social deeds more negatively with age.
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results/ conlcusions 2?
. Chinese children’s ratings of truth telling about pro-social deeds became significantly more negative with age, whereas Canadian children’s ratings remained similar.
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results/ conclusions 3?
Canadian children rated lie telling about pro-social deeds negatively, although ratings became slightly less negative with age, whereas Chinese children’s ratings on lie telling about pro-social deeds changed from negative to positive with age
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results/ conclusions 4?
When interviewed, post-experimentally, many Chinese children stated ‘one should not leave one’s name after doing a good deed
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results/ conclusions 5?
The difference between cultures can be explained by socialisation; as children age, they internalise cultural values such as the value of self-effacement in Chinese culture.
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what do the results and conclusions support?
This supports Sweetser’s (1987) folkloristic model of lying- that cultural factors affect the development of moral reasoning, and their influence increases with age, because of socialisation and the internalisation of cultural values.
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what is the aim?

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To test the effect of culture on children’s moral evaluation and truth telling when comparing Canadian and Chinese children in situations in which the pro- and antisocial actions were denied or acknowledged.

Card 3

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what was the first culture?

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Card 4

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what was the second culture?

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Card 5

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what were the conditions?

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