Lectures 9 and 10: Components of Memory

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What was the traditional view of memory? And what is the modern?
Traditional = Aristotle - memory was single faculty of mind. Modern = multiple components: Sensory (iconic and echoic), WM (phonological, visuospatial) and LTM (declarative and procedural - further splits to episodic and semantic)
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Define the roles of the STM, STS and WM.
STM = hold info for short intervals. STS = small store in WM. WM = uses STS ad manipulates info.
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What is the Working Memory? How do we know it is different from LTM?
Active, holds small amount of info from sensory input, stuff retrieved from LTM or ongoing operations. Different = introspection, physiology, experiments, brain damage.
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What are the three reasons a separate working memory is proposed?
Introspection: primary vs secondary memory. Physiology: something must hold new info while it is consolidated to LTM as this requires protein synthesis. Complex systems = like a computer, info available, can be stored and can be deleted.
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How can we investigate WM?
Need measures of STM. Brown-Peterson paradigm - pps asked to recall trigrams after 3,6,9,12,15 or 18 seconds. Longer delay = less recall. 3 seconds = 80% recall. Probed recall. Free recall.
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How can we explain the pattern of short-term forgetting?
Dual-trace theory: two different traces, one easily formed, easily lost and other harder to form, harder to lose.
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What would the pattern of short-term forgetting be supported by?
A - retention over short interval influenced by factors that don't influence over long interval. B - retention over long interval influenced by factors that don't influence over short interval.
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What are some examples of the support for short term forgetting?
Free recall - A: count back, knocks out recency but preserves primary effect. B: faster presentation rate reduces primary recall, preserves recency. Sequence recall - A: phonological similarity affects ST recall not LT. B: semantic affects LT not ST.
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What do neuropsychological dissociations tell us about memory?
Difference between: WM and LTM, Procedural and declarative LTM. Semantic and episodic LEM.
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What is an example of a neurological dissociation?
HM: WM fine but anterograde memory impaired. Normal recency but poor primary effect. STM patients show conduct aphasics: cannot immediately repeat sequence of words but can if presented slowly.
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What is the Modal Model? Who created it?
Atkinson and Shiffrin: Environmental stimuli (visual, auditory, semantic) ---> STS ---> LTS
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What is the newer model and what does it suggest?
Multi-component model: WM has phonological loop and buffer and visuo-spatial sketchpad. LTS: procedural vs declarative, episodic vs semantic, explicit vs implicit.
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What is the evidence for procedural vs declarative memory?
Patients with anterograde amnesia can't form new memories about events/experiences/facts (declarative) but with practice can learn perceptual skills and problem solving (procedural)
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What is the evidence for episodic vs semantic memory?
Semantic dementia: loss of knowledge about the world but well preserved autobiographical memories. (episodic = past, semantic = knowledge acquired along way)
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What is the three staged account of memory?
Sensory Memory ---> WM ---> LTM (goes back to WM)
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What is the evidence for the three staged account?1
Visuospatial skills allow perception of objects e.g. square, triangle, cube and if you got lost in city could find way back by looking around and using map in VS sketchpad.
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What is the evidence for the three staged account?2
Sperling - letter on screen, asked to report one row, if pre and post field was dark could recall for longer and was peripheral representation.
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What is the evidence for the three staged account?3
Phillips - crossword puzzles. Interval increase = less recall of pattern.
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What is the relationship between Visual WM and change detection?
White flash produces transients across the field. Very little memory for objects in previous frame. Changes not easily detectable.
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What is the association between change blindness and the transition from iconic to visual WM?
We have visual cortex maps of what we see, and there are maps for orientation, colour, movement, etc. While image is around we create "object files" but if we did not attend to the object in the first frame, no file is created + no change recognised
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Is Visual STS distinct from LT Visual Memory?
Experiments found them to be different. Previous patterns recovered from LTVM, what is seen currently is in visual STS.
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What is the relationship between WM and verbal WM?
phonological loop has span of 7 one-syllable words, and 5 two-syllable words (longer words take longer to rehearse.
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Do verbal and visuo-spatial WM use distinct stores?
Yes - instructions for inserting letters into grid showed double dissociation.
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Explain image vs propositional representations.
Image: depicted, one thing, analogue. Propositional: described, use symbols.
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Do we have mental images?
Not everyone does - some people can't picture own breakfast table. If you go blind at an early age you will experience visual imagery in dreams. Brain studies have showed same areas used for visual perception as mental imagery.
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Card 2

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Define the roles of the STM, STS and WM.

Back

STM = hold info for short intervals. STS = small store in WM. WM = uses STS ad manipulates info.

Card 3

Front

What is the Working Memory? How do we know it is different from LTM?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the three reasons a separate working memory is proposed?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

How can we investigate WM?

Back

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