Lectures 19 and 20: Emotion Part 1

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What is the Oxford Dictionary definition of 'emotion'?
A strong feeling deriving from one's circumstances, mood or relationships with others; instinctive or intuitive feeling as distinguished from reasoning or knowledge.
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What are the stages of processing according to Phillips et al (2003) neuroanatomical model?
1- Regulation of affective state. 2- Production of affective state (duration of emotion). 3= Identification of emotional significance of stimuli. States thought to happen in different brain systems.
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What is Darwin's (1872) theory of emotion?
Suggested that expressions were conserved across humans of different ages in different cultures. Thought emotions evolved for adaptive value, increasing survival. Thought emotions signified what an animal was likely to do next.
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What is Ekman's (1972) theory of emotion?
Developed Darwin's so more human focussed. Basic emotions = happy, sad, fear, anger, disgust, surprise. Found in tribes who had no exposure to other people, still had facial expressions, so must be innate. Blind use expressions, and evidence in womb
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How are emotions classified?1
Schneirla (1959) - Simple Dual system: categorise in terms of approach and withdrawal. Gray (70's-80's) Behavioural approach (reward) and Inhibition Systems (punishment).
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How are emotions classified?2
Davidson's valence-asymmetry hypothesis: left PFC = approach related (positive) goals and right = goals requiring inhibition and withdrawal (negative).
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What is Russell's (1980) classification system for emotion?
Circumplex model - accounts for negative emotions being associated with specific responses.
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What do we know about emotional expression?
Ekman et al (1980) - pps watched pos or neg film and self-reported experience. Facial expressions videoed and recorded by FACS, those who reported particular smile movement reported more happiness. Those with negative movements reported neg emotions
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What is FACS and what does it do?
Facial Action Coding System. Ekman and Friesen (1978) developed FACCS - observes facial movements and recognises every emotion. Facial EMG measures frown and smile muscles - shown females are more able to perceive emotion.
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What did Fridlund's study show about emotions being social?
Fridlund (1991) got pps to view pleasant video: alone, alone but thought friend near doing task, alone but thought friend watching same tape, watching with friend. EMG found more smiling when settings more social. Expression communicates motive.
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What did Hess et al (1995) show about emotions being social?
Similar, varied intensity of emotional stimulus, slightly funny vs very funny; varied relationship to pps: friend vs stranger; measured EMG, skin conductance and self-report; found: social context increased intensity of smiling, WITH FRIENDS ONLY.
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What is James-Lange's Theory (1885)?
That emotions involve the body. Emotions = set of bodily responses that occur in response to emotive stimuli. Different patterns of bodily change code different emotions. (frightened because we run, sorry because we cry).
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What is the correlation between facial expression and heart rate?
Heart rate measured in identification of sad and angry faces or happy and disgusted faces. Disgust mis-identified as sadness or anger evoked heart rate change (different to when normally see disgust) Supports Lange.
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What is the Cannon-Bard Theory? (1920)
Argued against James as: emotions occurred even if brain disconnected from internal organs; bodily changes not emotion specific; bodily changes too slow; stimulation of bodily change does not = emotion.
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What are the problems with the Cannon-Bard Theory?
Brain disconnected=less intense, body changes are partly emotion-specific. SO emotions depend on brain mechanisms. Body state represented in brain: if shown bear, left activation of visual, auditory and affective systems. Remembering =same activation
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What is the two factor theory of emotion?
Schachter and Singer (1962)-pps misinformed about injection, got adrenaline instead of drug to test eyesight. Those without explanation of why they experienced effects they did were more susceptible to someone acting euphoric or angry.
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What did Lazarus suggest about appraisal and emotion, and in what year?
1991. Relational meaning: emotions not cause by events/environment or individual factors, but by person-environment relationships that change over time. Means emotion rooted in appraisal.
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What are the two older theories about how emotion is controlled?
Neural circuit of emotion (1937) - thinking and feeling streams - thought occurs when cortex integrated signals from hypothalamus and sensory cortex. Emotional brain - limbic system = integrate sensations to generate emotional experience.
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What is the modern idea of how emotion is controlled? - refer to animals
Brain imaging/behavioural exps./lesion studies/electrophysiological recording. Amygdala important for emotion processing. Monkeys with lesions= changes in social behaviour (Kluver-Bucy S) Social disinhibition and absence of emotion/fear reaction
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What is the modern idea of how emotion is controlled? - refer to humans
Lesions in humans = emotional blunting and reduced fear, impaired perception of fear facial expression. Electrical stimulation = autonomic reactions associated with fear.
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What do we know from LeDoux?
Proposed two amygdala pathways - high road (slower), from stimuli to sensory cortex to amygdala. Low road (faster) - from stimuli to amygdala - produces quick response. fMRI shown amygdala activated in response to facial expressions, especially fear
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What do genes influence in regard to emotion?
Influence how our brain responds to negative emotions - amygdala response to pictures signalling threat is influenced by genes. Genes influence how brain responds to negative emotional material - and whether we get depressed.
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Examine what we know about genes and depression.
Association of number of stressful life events + depression outcome at 26yrs as function of genotype - effect stronger in those with 's' allele. Association of childhood abuse and adult depression as function of genotype: abuse= dep only with 's'
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Explain the correlation between emotion and patients with MDD?
Have at least 5 symptoms. If you ask them to identify basic emotion, less likely to say mildly happy face is happy - less sensitive to pos stimuli. Have negative emotional bias (more sensitive to negative expressions)
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Explain the correlation between emotion and patients with MDD, in the context of drugs?
AntiD's decrease amygdala response to negative facial expressions. Exp: healthy people given 7 days antiD's and had decreased recognition of negative emotional expressions.
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What do we know about the Insula Cortex?
Controls disgust. Conditioned taste aversion in rats. Lesions in humans = perception of unpleasantness. OCD might have something to do with disgust.
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What are the stages of processing according to Phillips et al (2003) neuroanatomical model?

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1- Regulation of affective state. 2- Production of affective state (duration of emotion). 3= Identification of emotional significance of stimuli. States thought to happen in different brain systems.

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What is Darwin's (1872) theory of emotion?

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What is Ekman's (1972) theory of emotion?

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How are emotions classified?1

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