Lecture 5

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 29-02-16 20:32
3 components of the frontal lobe
Motor, premotor, prefrontal
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Make movements
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Association area
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appropriate movements for correct place and time
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Most evolved part of brain
time management, planning, impulse control, critical thinking, organisation
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Change personality, emotional reactions, can't make decisions or plan
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Ice pick through eye to dismantle frontal lobe and fix personality issues
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Impairments in
Language, behaviour and cognition
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Broca's area in
Left frontal lobe
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Lesion of association areas- can comprehend language but no vocalizations
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Lesion in Exner's area- difficulty in writing and reading
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Motor function
Right frontal lobe- Can't express emotions in voice and face/ impairment of reflexes
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Left temporal lobe
Understand and process language/ communication/ STM & LTM/ emotional stability/Visual and auditory processing
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Right Temporal Lobe
Read facial expressions/ Process verbal tones and intonations/ appreciate music/ visual learning
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Association cortex for Primary Auditory Cortex
Wernicke's area- creates meaning
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Area that turns it into motor action
Arcuate fasciculus
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Area that creates words
Broca's area
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Motor area
Larynx/ Hands
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Temporal lobe damage can be due to
Congenital (disease present from birth)/ head injuries/ Meningitis
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Parietal lobe- 2 functional regions
Frontal/ Posterior
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Sensation and perception- integrates info into single perception
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Integrates sensory and visual info and constructs spatial coordinate system to represent world
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Damage causes
Heightened somatosensory thresholds
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Afferent Paresis
Clumsiness due to loss of feedback on position
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Loss of knowledge or sense of own body
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Object recognition
Recognise only familiar position
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Contralateral neglect
Only look after one half of body
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Loss of skilled movement
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2 types
Ideomotor apraxia- unable to copy movements or make gestures/ Constructional apraxia- can't perform activities that require skilled movement
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Occipital lobe
Used for initial visual reception which passes to temporal and parietal lobes
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Calcarine cortex
Primary visual reception
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Association area
Recognition of size, shape and colour
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Damage to Primary Visual Cortex
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Damage to association cortex
Agnosia- can't combine individual parts to form whole object
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Lose half of sight
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Lose Quarter of sight
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Lose focal spot
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2 key systems in forebrain
Limbic system and Basal Ganglia
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Limbic Cortex
Simplest form of cerebral cortex- learning, memory, feeling and expressing emotion, recognition of emotion, emotional memories
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Evolution of limbic system coincided with
Development of emotional response
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Basal ganglia
Control movement- make movement unconcious/ influence cognitive functioning
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Basal ganglia made up of
Stratium (Caudate nucleus and putamen) and Globus Pallidus
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Basal Ganglia dysfunction- Substansia nigra -x-> Stratium`
Parkinson's disease
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Stratium -x-> Globus Pallidus
Huntington's disease
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Subthalamic nucleus-x-> Globus pallidus
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Or other basal ganglia disfunction
Tourette syndrome
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Diencephalon is located
anterior to the midbrain
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Made up of 4 areas
Epithalamus, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Subthalamus
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Pineal gland- produces melatonin which controls circadian rhythms
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Pineal gland- 3 jobs
Converts nervous system signals of endocrine signals/ regulates endocrine functions/ secretes melatonin
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Appetite modulation, sleep, depression, stress
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Two oval masses of grey matter
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All sensory info ... except
goes through thalamus first... smell- sense of smell developed before the thalamus
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Thalamus connects with
Primary cortexes
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Regulates body's internal environment
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Midbrain subdivision
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2 principle structures
Tectum and Tegmentum
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Tectum (also called brain stem) made up of
Superior colliculus- visual receptors/ Inferior colliculus- auditory receptors
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Superior colliculus
Goal directed orientation responses towards novel sensory stimuli plus controls eye movements
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Dysfunction in superior colliculus in cats
Loss of attention and behavioural changes- similar to autistic children/ hypersensitive to sounds- cant filter properly
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Reticular formation (in tegmentum)
90 interconnected nuclei that wake up brain when there's a noise- not connected in children
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4 types of function
Motor control/ Sensory control/ Visceral control (blood pressure)/ Control of conciousness
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Periaqueducal Grey (in tegmentation)
Sensory response to pain- pre-synaptic inhibition allows fight or flight/ Controls sequences that constitute species specific behaviour
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Stimulation of Periaqueductal grey
Reduced pain/ induces panic attack
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Red nucleus
Iron= controls motor activity
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Substantia nigra (tegmentation) produces... and inhibits ...
dopamine/ acetylcholine
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Axons end up in
Basal ganglia
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When dopamine producing neurones die
Overproduction of acetylecholine= chain reaction of abnormal signalling= impaired mobility
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Ventral Tegmental Area (tegmentation)
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VTA releases
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Metencephalon and Mylencephalon
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Metencephalon principle structures
Pons/ Cerebellum
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Reticular formation- conciousness and sleep/ motor control and sensory analysis
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Damage to pons
Impaired coordination of measurement and posture
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coordination of motor activity/ balance
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Can't plan movement/ problems with posture/ smooth limb movement
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Medulla oblongata and Spinal cord
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Medulla oblongata
Vital reflexes and autonomic functions/ sensory functions
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Spinal cord
Neurones inside spinal cord/ motor neurones around outside/ sensory neurones in ganglia to CNS- nerves go through between vertibrae
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Most evolved part of brain


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