Lecture 4

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 28-02-16 17:32
Brain, spinal cord
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Nerves-spinal and cranial, peripheral ganglia
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Two types of peripheral ganglia
Somatic, Autonomic
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Somatic ganglia
Sensory info peripher-> CNS, body of sensory neurone but no synapse
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Autonomic ganglia
sweating, breathing etc, body of post synaptic automatic neurone and one synapse
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Two divisions of automatic ganglia
Sympathetic, Parasympathetic
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fight or flight, one synapse and one neurone
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Body of presynaptic cord->
ganglia (synapse inside)
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Next to
spinal cord, one per vertebrae
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calms you down- normal functions, one neurone and one synapse
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Ganglia next to
organ they're instrumenting
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Spinal nerves
Carry signals through axons
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blood vessels in spaces between vertebrae
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Disk hernia
Cushion between vertebrae slips out and hits nerve
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Cranial nerve
12- some exclusively sensory/ exclusively motor/ sensory, motor and automatic
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Tough connective tissue covering nervous system
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CSF in meninges
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3 layers of meninges
Dura mater, Arachnoid, Pia mater
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Space between Arachnoid and Pia mater
Sub arachnoid space
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Sub arachnoid haemorrhage
blood bursts from vessels into pia mater
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Triangle of death
around nose, under eyes, connected to blood vessel sinuses in brain- bacteria cause infection in brain
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Ventricular system
Lateral ventricle, 3rd ventricle, 4th ventricle
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Brain protected by
Meninges and Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
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CSF produced in
choriod plexus and extracted from blood
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Full off
Glucose and electrolytes- not blood cells
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No pump
Choriod plexus creates pressure to move it
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Half life
3 hours
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in 3 hours makes
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Gets reabsorbed
through arachnoid granulations into blood
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Goes down aqueducts from
lateral ventricle-> 3rd-> 4th-> out through small openings round sub arachnoid space
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Spinal tap
Take out CSF from spine to test for infection
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too much CSF- really big ventricles= problems with brain development
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Babies and adults
babies= really big heads/ adults- hella pressure
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Two types
Non-communicating= obstructed flow/ Communicating= problem with production or reabsorbtion
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Too much production= rare
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Insufficient reabsorbtion= frequent
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Circulation disturbance= frequent
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Bleeding= frequent
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Valve behind ear carries liquid to abdomen area and absorbed there- effective unless rejected and it can just be replaced
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Blood-brain barrier
Thicker layer and glia around capillaries protects brain
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Capillary length
400 miles/ 650km/ 12m squared
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Membrane made of
lipid bilayer
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Permeable to (important)
glucose- brain only uses glucose for metabolism
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Can cross blood-brain barrier
Alcohol and general anaesthetics
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Some areas more relaxed because
Need to be able to detect when something's up- eat something poisonous/low blood sugar
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These are called
circumventricular organs eg Area postrem/ arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus
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Drugs made in way so that
they can cross the blood-brain barrier
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Zygote-> 2 blastomeres-> 4 blastomeres-> morula-> blastula
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Hole inside blastula
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Inner cell mass/ future egg yolk/ trophoblast
week 1-2
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Environment of womb
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Day 12
* bilaminal disk
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3 layers
Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm
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cells on top become neurones
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Become more like
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Neural induction
* somite/ neural tube
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division in ventricular zone of neural tube- migrate to appropriate location
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Once in right place
axons and dendrites grow
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Make synapse
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Make more neurones than we need by
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Cell suicide
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Development of brain starts on
18th day
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3 vesticle stage
Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain (and then spinal chord)
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Gap in middle of Hindbrain
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Telecephalon- cerebral hemisphere, lateral ventricle/ Diencephalon- Optic ventricle, third ventricle
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Mesencephalon- cerebral aquaduct
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Metencephalon/ Mielencephalon= forth ventricle
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Length at 20 weeks
5cm plus basic shape
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How many cells per minute grow in foetus?
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Brain weight at birth
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Brain weight as adult
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Most of growth happens in
first 2 years
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3 types of growth
Synaptogenesis, Myelination, Increasing branches of dendrites
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Increase in cortex after birth/ more important areas for survival earlier
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In sensory areas in first few months/ motor areas a bit later/ prefrontal cortex (socialisation)- adulthood, why teenagers take risks- not fully developed
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Dendritic branching
Dead quick, plasticity in adults
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Window of opportunity- sensory deprivation
reared in dark- fewer synapses in visual areas
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thicker cortices/ more dendrites/ more synapses per neurone
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Carried out by microglia
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Disorders of neurodevelopment
Autism spectrum disorders, Williams syndrome
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Intellectually handicapped, amazing specific cognitive or artistic ability- over compensation for damaged parts
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Percentage that are Autistic
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Autistic- respond less well to faces
Because spend less time looking at them from young age
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Mirror neurones
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2 parts of telecephalon that are subcortical
basal ganglia, limbic system
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Cerebral cortex surface area and thickness
2360cm squared, 3mm
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3 convolutions
Fissures= large grooves/ Sulci= small grooves/ Gyri= bulge between adjacent sulci or fissures
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Brain divided into lobes which are named after
the bones that cover them- frontal, perietal etc
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Cerebral cortex consists mostly of
neurones and glia- no myelin
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General function
recieve info-> process info-> generate response
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Three types of sensory info
Primary visual cortex, Primary auditory cortex, Primary somatosensory cortex
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Sensory unit
Areas of high neurone density= more sensitive eg. tips of fingers
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Motor neurone
more motor neurones contracting same muscle= stronger contraction
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Sensory homunculus
Man drawing with bigs hands etc
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Born without arms
More neurones in feet for example to make up for it
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Sensory and motor cortex make up small part of cerebral cortex
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Association areas
Everything between sensation and action (memory, learning, planning)
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More complex behaviour
Bigger association cortex
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Located away from primary cortex
Integrates info from lots of sensory sources
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Damage to somatosensory association cortex
Difficulty in perceiving shapes of objects they can't see
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Damage to visual association cortex
Visual agnosia
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Damage to auditory association cortex
Difficulty perceiving speech
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Left side/ right side
Analytical/ perception of emotion
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Connected by
Corpus collosum
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Card 2




Nerves-spinal and cranial, peripheral ganglia

Card 3


Two types of peripheral ganglia


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Card 4


Somatic ganglia


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Autonomic ganglia


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