Learning to be Happy 6

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What are the four main keys to wellbeing?
Affiliation, Achievement, Autonomy & Meaning
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What are the significant points of seeing the self as an OBJECT?
own view of self but almost from the third person - narrative, concept (what defines 'me'), schemas and memories, skills and goals - leads to conceptions of self-esteem - COGNITIVE|REFLECTIVE
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What are the significant points of seeing the self as SUBJECT?
Self as a subject - 'me', conscious awareness and subjective experience, perceiver, here and now, current motivation - AFFECTIVE|FLOW - use of defense mechanisms to control 'inner conflict'
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What is 'self-esteem'?
consider ourselves to be positive or valuable
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What are defense mechanisms?
manage conflict to promote well-being
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What do high self-esteem and high self-efficacy contribute to?
Personal strength and resilience, better health and well-being, greater optimism for sucess
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How can we develop self-worth?
Good parenting styles - consistent authoritative approach, clear reasoning and explanation behind rules, high but attainable (explicit standards), children treated with respect, accepting
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What constitutes as poor parenting styles?
Overly liberal or authoritarian, no clear reasoning OR no clear explanation behind rules, no clear standards, no drive for achievement, abusive , avoidant parenting , avoidant coping strategies (drinking)
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Does self-esteem remain consistent over time?
Yes. There is a drive for a consistent 'self' due to - self-enhancement, consistent view of self, socially approved view of self, 'accurate' view of self - discount/deny any inconsistent info
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How can a self-esteem be improved?
Skills training = increase sense of competence (problem-solving, social skills, assertiveness), Environmental Change = remove factors that are maintaining low esteem (poverty, social disadvantage, bullying at work), Therapy
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What is self-efficacy?
I am capable of performing this particular task to this level of ability
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What are sources of self-efficacy?
Mastery experiences, vicarious experiences (observing others' success), social encouragement, physical and emotional states
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What are coping strategies?
Conscious, explicit, cognitive way of dealing with situation - problem focused, emotion focused, avoidance
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What are defense mechanisms?
Unconscious, implicit, emotional regulation of conflict --> displacement [bad grade in exam --> get stroppy with girlfriend]; projection [worried about your diet--> accuse others of bad diet]; denial [refusing to admit you smoke "just the odd one"
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What are adaptive defences?
ANTICIPATION - cognitive planning in anticipation of aversive or stressful evens; HUMOR - 'seeing the funny side' - reduces the negative impact whilst accepting the situation; SUBLIMATION - channeling negative energy into something positive e.g. musi
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What are the benefits of adaptive defences?
Positive adaptive defences can help to enrich our lives - make the best of a bad situation - allow avenues for progression and growth
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What's the difference between self-esteem and self-efficacy?
Self-esteem - primarily a judgement of self-worth; Self-efficacy - primarily a judgement of capabilities
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What is self-image?
Consistent, stable, resistant to conflicting messages (note implications for any form of 'change' - it will be difficult! - even positive change)
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What is one of the greatest challenges we'll all face in life?
Change
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What is change?
A challenge to security, a challenge to our abilities and who we are (self)
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What are types of change?
Completion or change in lifestyle stage - University, Marriage; Changing long-standing habits - diet, smoking, altruism, mood
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What are the stages of change?
Precontemplation, Contemplation, Planning, Action
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How is change engendered through?
optimism, intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy
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What are the significant points of seeing the self as an OBJECT?

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own view of self but almost from the third person - narrative, concept (what defines 'me'), schemas and memories, skills and goals - leads to conceptions of self-esteem - COGNITIVE|REFLECTIVE

Card 3

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What are the significant points of seeing the self as SUBJECT?

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Card 4

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What is 'self-esteem'?

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Card 5

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What are defense mechanisms?

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