Learning to be Happy 4

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What are the two types of antecedents?
Motivating Operations (MO) - establishes a consequence as a reinforcer or punisher; Discriminative Stimuli (SD) - lets you know that consequence is available if you engage in a particular behavior
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How does preference influence motivating operations?
Preference for items changes, a person's desire or motivation for things changes over time and is affected by environmental factors (motivating operations is a general term that encompasses both establishing & abolishing operations)
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What is motivating operations?
An environmental event, operation or stimulus condition that affects the organism by momentarily altering the reinforcing effects of a stimulus & frequency of behaviors that have previously been reinforced by that stimulus, object or event
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What are unconditioned MO's?
unlearned e.g. water, food, sleep, activity, oxygen, sex deprivation, too hot, too cold, pain
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What are conditioned MO's?
learned or conditioned e.g. calling a security guard upon hearing a suspicious sound and having them respond
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What is the relationship between MO's and the availability of stimulus?
The MO can be in operation even if the consequence isn't available (can find a drink reinforcing even if a drink isn't available)
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What is a discriminative stimulus?
A stimulus present prior to a response that is correlated with reinforcement (indicates that reinforcement is available)
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What is the process of getting a drink in relation to a discriminative stimulus?
MO: you haven't had water in a few hours; SD: Soda machine; Behavior: Put money in the machine, purchase a bottle of water and drink ; Consequence: You are no longer thirsty
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What is the process of sleeping in relation to a discriminative stimuli?
MO: You were up late at night and woke early to go to class; SD: The sofa has been correlated with sleep in the past; Behavior: You lay on the sofa and fall asleep; Consequence: You are no longer tired
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What is stimulus control?
A higher (or lower) frequency of behavior is observed in the presence of a given stimulus (SD) because this stimulus is correlated (is predictive) with a higher (or lower) frequency of reinforcement for that behavior
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What are the differences between SD's and MO's?
both precede a behavior; both evoke a response (control response frequency) but for different reasons; both are operant variables
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What makes a stimuli discriminative?
indicates that reinforcement is available; in its absence the reinforcer is not usually available; a stimulus is a SD when the item is still reinforcing even in the absence of the SD
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How to differentiate between an SD or a MO?
Does the reinforcer remain effective in the absence of the stimulus? If yes = Discriminative Stimulus. If no = Establishing Operation
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Card 2

Front

How does preference influence motivating operations?

Back

Preference for items changes, a person's desire or motivation for things changes over time and is affected by environmental factors (motivating operations is a general term that encompasses both establishing & abolishing operations)

Card 3

Front

What is motivating operations?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are unconditioned MO's?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are conditioned MO's?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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