Learning Approach

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  • Created by: Rebekah
  • Created on: 18-04-14 14:09
What are the 3 key assumptions of this approach?
1) Focus on the environment 2) Focus on scientific methods 3) Effects of condition and SLT
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What does Tabula Rasa mean?
Blank slate - we are born with
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What are the three theories?
1) Classical conditioning 2) Operant conditioning 3) Social learning theory
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Classical conditioning is learning by...
Association (made between an unlearned response and a neutral stimulus)
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What is the stimulus in classical conditioning?
What is done to the person or animal
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What is the response in classical conditioning?
A reflex or an automatic behaviour
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Classical conditioning: What is extinction?
When the association between the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and the conditioned stimulus (CS) no longer occurs
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Classical conditioning: What is spontaneous recovery?
After extinction - the association/conditioned response (CR) may reoccur for no apparent reason
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Operant conditioning is learning through...
Consequences
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What is the main idea of operant conditioning?
We will behave in a particular way and if we are rewarded for it for we will repeat it and if we are punished for it we will stop
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How is operant conditioning different from classical conditioning?
The consequence comes after the response, rather than the stimulus coming before the response
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Operant conditioning: What is positive reinforcement?
When something desired (a reward) is given in response to behaviour (increases/encourages)
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Operant conditioning: What is negative reinforcement?
When something desired is taken away in response to behaviour
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Operant conditioning: What is punishment?
Doing something unpleasant to stop the behaviour (decreases)
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What experiment supports operant conditioning?
Thorndike (1911)
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Operant conditioning: What is shaping?
When a behaviour is arrived at by: rewarding, waiting for desired behaviour and waiting for actual behaviour before reinforcement
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Operant conditioning: Shaping: What is primary reinforcement?
Reward is a basic need such as food, drink, warmth and shelter
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Operant conditioning: Shaping: What is secondary reinforcement?
Reward is something that can satisfy a basic need but is not in itself a basic need
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Give 3 strengths of classical & operant conditioning theories as explanations of human behaviour
1) carefully controlled - cause and effect can be drawn 2) Experimental - scientific 3) Practical applications - can be applied in therapies
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Give 3 weaknesses of classical & operant conditioning theories as explanations of human behaviour
1) Animals and humans are different 2) Hard to generalise for humans when tested on animals 3) Lack of validity - lab experiments
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What is a covert participant study?
The observation is a secret and the observer is a PP/involved in the activity without them knowing
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What is a covert non-participant study?
Observers are not part of whats happening and it is still unknown
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What is an overt participant study?
Observing an activity while being a part of it and they're aware
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What is an overt non-participant study?
Observing people in a public place that you're not a part of but they're aware
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Give a strength of a covert observation
1) Natural behaviour = increased validity 2)
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Give a weakness of a covert observation
1) no informed consent = not ethical
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Give a strength of an overt observation
1) informed consent = ethical
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Give a weakness of an overt observation
1) Know they're being observed = not natural behaviour = lack of validity
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Give a strength of participant observations
1) natural setting = ecological validity
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Give a weakness of participant observations
1) Observer may be too involved to record data
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Give a strength of a non-participant observation
1) objective 2) data more easily recorded as can concentrate
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Give a weakness of a non-participant observation
1) Their presence may affect behaviour 2) may misunderstand or miss relevance of an action - don't have shared understanding
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Who developed systematic desensitisation?
Wolpe (1958)
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What is the aim of systematic desensitisation therapy?
To extinguish an undesirable behaviour (fear) by replacing it with a more desirable one: relaxation
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What is counterconditioning?
Reducing a conditioned response such as anxiety by establishing an incompatible response such as relaxation
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What is reciprocal inhibition?
The idea that two contrasting emotions can't exist at the same time: replacing fear with relaxation
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How does systematic desensitisation therapy work?
1) subject given training in deep muscle relaxation techniques 2) form a hierarchy of fear 3) subject relaxes at each stage
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Give two strenghs of systematic desensitisation therapy
1) gradual exposure = more ethical than other phobia therapies 2) clear rationale based on classical conditioning 3) studies show the therapy to be successful
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Give two weaknesses of systematic desensitisation therapy
1) Not everyone can learn to relax 2) also involved operant conditioning so the explanation of classical conditioning is not the whole story
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What is the social learning theory?
Learning through observation, imitation and modelling of another person or role model. Imitation can only occur through someone you can identify with
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What are the steps involved with observational learning in the social learning theory?
1) behaviour is modelled by role model 2) observer identifies with role model 3) behaviour is observed and noted 4) behaviour is imitated
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What are the four processes involved in SLT according to Bandura (1977)
1) Attention (see it) 2) Retention (remembers info) 3) Reproduction (capable of doing it also) 4) Motivation (want to do it)
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What is vicarious reinforcement?
Reinforcement recieved indirectly by seeing another person being rewarded for behaviour (so you try it too)
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What is vicarious punishment?
Stopping doing a behaviour after observing another person being punished for it
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What is vicarious extinction?
Stopping doing a behaviour after observing another person recieve no reward for it
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Give two strengths of the SLT
1) Evidence for theory is strong because there is experimental evidence to support and visible evidence 2) Practical applications as to why behaviour may be copied
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Give two weaknesses of the SLT
1) Lack of validity 2) Difficult to gneralise on humans when studies are mainly carried out on animals
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What does Tabula Rasa mean?

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Blank slate - we are born with

Card 3

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What are the three theories?

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Card 4

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Classical conditioning is learning by...

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Card 5

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What is the stimulus in classical conditioning?

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