Learning 2

What is the conditioned response?
The response that has been learnt; it now occurs when the CS is presented, such as Pavlov's dog's salvation at the sound of the bell (CS)
1 of 22
What is extinction?
When the conditioned response dies out.
2 of 22
What is spontaneous recovery?
When a conditioned response that has disappeared (is extinct) suddenly appears again.
3 of 22
What is Generalisation?
Generalisation is when the conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the original CS is presented. (eg. all bells in the Pavlov's dog experiment)
4 of 22
What is discrimination (learning)?
The conditioned response is only produced when a specific stimulus is presented.
5 of 22
What is Learning?
A semi permanent change is behaviour due to experience. Eg a child holding using a fork.
6 of 22
What is operant conditioning?
Learning due to the consequences of behaviour, through positive or negative reinforcement.
7 of 22
What is Thorndike's Law of Effect?
If a certain response has pleasant concequences, it is more likely than other responses to occur in the same circumstances.
8 of 22
How did Skinner contribute to operant conditioning?
He introduced the idea of reinforcement to the Law of Effect. He coined the term as it 'operates' on the environment.
9 of 22
What is Behaviour Shaping?
When a task is broken down in to short simple steps. After each step is completed the participant is rewarded.
10 of 22
What is the difference between Positive and negative reinforcement?
Positive reinforcement is when you are rewarded for a certain behaviour while negative reinforcement is when a unpleasant experience is removed after a behaviour is produced.
11 of 22
What is the difference between negative reinforcement and Punishment?
Negative reinforcement is when an unpleasant experience is removed while punishment is an unpleasant stimulus is introduced (you have to bring out the trash every day for a month)
12 of 22
What is Flooding?
A treatment for phobias that involves the immediate active and mental exposure to the thing the person fears, until there is no fear response. Eg someone with arachnophobia would have to hold a spider & visualise one. The person has to unlearn the
13 of 22
How does flooding work?
The person has to unlearn the connection between the stimulus and the fear response. CS-CR bond must be broken
14 of 22
What are the ethical implications of flooding?
1)The person loses the right to withdraw. 2)It can be a very stressful procedure. 3)It is difficult to protect and avoid harming someone who is being flooded as it can be dangerous to your mental well being.
15 of 22
What is systematic desensitisation?
A treatment for phobias in which the person is taught how to relax and then is gradually exposed to the feared object, activity or event in a hierarchy of fears.
16 of 22
How does systematic desensitisation work?
The conditioned response is replaced with a relaxation response this is called 'Jacobsen relaxation'
17 of 22
What are the ethical implications of systematic desensitisation?
1)The person takes an active role in the therapy and can always withdraw. 2)There is no deception. 3) It is much less anxiety-arousing and less stressful for the person undergoing treatment.
18 of 22
What is aversion therapy?
A treatment for addictions, such as drug and alcohol dependancy, which makes the addict have an extremely negative reaction to the addictive substance.
19 of 22
Evaluation of Aversion Therapy
1)It is unethical as it is extremely unpleasant for the person being treated. 2)Aversion therapy is not always successful over time. 3)additional support is needed to make sure the person does not backtrack.
20 of 22
What is token economy program?
It is made to encourage socially acceptable behaviour, eg in psychiatric wards in hospitals. Patients are immediately rewarded with a token after they produce an appropriate behaviour. They can use tokens for certain activities.
21 of 22
Evaluation of token economy.
1)this program makes the patient focus on the reward rather than on improving their behaviour 2)The change might not last in the outside world 3)Ethically it may not be right for patients not to be allowed certain activities as they dont have tokens
22 of 22

Other cards in this set

Card 2


What is extinction?


When the conditioned response dies out.

Card 3


What is spontaneous recovery?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


What is Generalisation?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


What is discrimination (learning)?


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Learning resources »