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  • Created by: Lauren
  • Created on: 08-05-14 13:17
Process by which experience produces an enduring and adaptive change in an organism's behaviour
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2 assumptions of behaviourism
laws of learing apply to all organisms, learning is explained by observable events
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Species adaptation
environment helps shape specie's biology
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Natural selection
survival characteristics get passed on
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Personal adaptation
organism's behaviour changes in responce to environmental stiumli in its lifetime
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a decrease in strength of responce to repeated stimuli, allows organisms to conserve energy and attend to other important stimuli
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an increase in strength of responce to a repeated stimuli
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How does arousing affect it?
More arousing = sensitization, less - habituation
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allows us to be able to learn to sensitize in important situations and habituate in those not useful to us
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Classical conditioning
associate two stimuli, such that one stimulus elicits a responce that was orginally caused only by the other
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period in which the responce is learned
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4 types of pairing
Foward short delay, forward trace, simultaneous, backward
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Forward short delay
CS appears 1st and still when UCS appears
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Forward trace
CS disappears 3 seconds before UCS appears
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CS and UCS presented at the same time
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CS presented after the UCS
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When is Classical conditioning stronger?
repeated, intense, forwar paired, short time interval
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CS repeated with UCS leads to weaked CR
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Spontaneous recovery
reappearance of previous CR after rest and without new trials
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What does spontaneous recovery prove?
Extinction is not a process of unlearning the CR
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Stimulus generalisatoin
when a CR is acquired and a similar stimuli may cause the reponce
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CR occurs to one stimulus and not to others
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High order conditioning
netural stimulus becomes a CS after being paired with a CS but it's weather
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exposure therapies - presenting CS that arouses anxiety without presure of UCS, aversion therapy - condition an aversion to a stimulus that triggers unwanted behaviour with noxious UCS
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Operant conditioning
when we link a stimulus with our own behaviour, good consequence = behaviour repeated
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Thorndike's study
cat learned to open a box to get the outcome of food
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Law effect
favourable outcomes strengthens the responce
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responce strenghted by an outcome that follows
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the outcome that increases frequency of a responce
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a responce is weakened by an outcome that follows
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a consequence that weakens frequency of a responce
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Three part contingency
Antecedents of behaviour, Behaviour, Consequences that follow
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Difference between classical and operant
classical is associated and focused on elicited behaviour, operant focuses on emited behaviours and having choice to behave for reward
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Discriminatie stimulus
a signal that a certain responce will not produce consequences, lever + light = food
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reinforcing successive approximations towards final responce, each progression towards final action gets a reward
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develop a sequence of responces, each one allows next to occur
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Continuous or partial?
learned quicker but extinguished quickers as more noticable when no reinforcement than partial
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Escape conditioning
Organism learns a responce to terminate aversive stimulus - put on coat to stop shivering
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Avoidance conditioning
Organism learns a responce to avoid aversive stimulus - dress warmly in the first place, classical and operant conditioning
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Latent Learning
a situation where learning occurs but the behaviour is not demonstrated until later, when there is an incentive to do so
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What two factors affect CS-UCS pairings?
Sequence and timing
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Breland's theory of instinctive drift
the tendancy for an unconditioned responce to return towards behaviour that is essentially instinctive
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Applied behavioural analysis
combines a behavioural approach with an scientific method to solve individual and societal problems
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Expectancy model
how well the CS predicts the UCS
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Card 2


2 assumptions of behaviourism


laws of learing apply to all organisms, learning is explained by observable events

Card 3


Species adaptation


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Card 4


Natural selection


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Personal adaptation


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