Learning Psychology

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Learning
Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour that is due to experience.
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Classical Conditioning
Classical conditioning is a process that involves creating an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral one.
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Pavlov's dogs
He presented the dogs with food in a bowl several times, So that eventually the dogs would salivate even ti an empty bowl. He then changed the stimulus to a bell to see if dogs would salivate when the bell is rung.
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Pavlov's Findings
Eventually the dogs did salivate when no food was present and the bell was rung. C: Classical conditioning can be used to broaden known behaviours to new stimuli
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Unconditioned Stimulus
Naturally, and automatically triggers a response.
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Unconditioned response
Reflex.unlearned response that occurs naturally in reaction to the unconditioned stimulus.
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Conditioned Stimulus
A CS is a stimulus that causes a does not cause an unconditioned response and so is presented with unconditioned stimulus so as to generate new conditional responses.
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Conditioned Response
conditioned response is the learned response to the previously neutral stimulus
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Neutral Stimulus
A neutral stimulus is a stimulus that produces no specific response but when presented with an unconditioned stimulus it becomes a conditioned stimulus.
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Extinction
Extinction is where the conditioned stimulus is presented continously without the unconditioned stimulus and so the response becomes less and less until is dissappears completely.
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Spontaneous Recovery
Spontaneous recovery is the reappearance of a response (a Conditioned Response) that had been extinguished
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Generalisation
This is when a stimulus similar to the original occurs and the response is still triggered.
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Discrimination
This is when a the conditioned stimulus is used several times and then other stimuli which are similar to it are used but with no unconditioned stimuli present eventually they can discriminate in between the original stimuli and any imposteres.
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Watson & Rayner (1920): Little albert AIM
To see if somebody could become phobic of an object through use of classical conditioning.
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Watson & Rayner (1920): Little albert METHOD
Little Albert an 11 month old boy, was presented with a white rat and allowed to play with it. When he played with the rat a metal bar was struck against the floor generating a noise which scared albert. This repeated whenever Albert tried to play wi
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Watson & Rayner (1920): Little albert RESULTS
The researcher stopped striking the metal bar and gave albert the rat to play with Albert was scared and tried to crawl away.
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Watson & Rayner (1920): Little albert CONCLUSION
Albert learned to associate the rat with fear through operant conditioning. This also generalised with other white objects.
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Operate conditioning
A method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. Through operant conditioning, an association is made between a behaviour and a consequence for that behaviour.
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Thorndike AIM
To see the effect of operant conditioning on animals.
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Thorndike METHOD
A cat was put in a cage and food wwas placed outside the cage. The cat wandered around the cage until eventually it knocked off the latch that was keeping the cage door locked. It then went outside the cage ate the food and then the researchers retur
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Thorndike RESULTS
Each time the cat did this there was less and less time before it escaped again because it had learned to associate the behaviour of knocking the latch with reward of getting food.
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Thorndike CONCLUSION
Even animals can learn new behaviours through operant conditioning.
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Thorndike's Law of Effect
Thorndikes law of effect states that.... If a behaviour leads to pleasant circumstances it will be learned and repeated. If a behaviour leads to unpleasnat circumstances it will not be repeated. The consequnece must occur very soon after the initi
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Reinforcement (P/N)
Positive reinforcement - This is when a behaviour is encouraged through actively rewarding it. Negative reinforcement - When behaviour is used to stop something unpleasnat or unwanted happening.
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Punishment
Punishment is a consequence which makes behaviour less likely to occur.
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Systematic Desensitisation
This is where we use a hierarchy of fear in order to reduce or remove a phobia. hen you would eventually lose your fear of heights because the response would become extinct.
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Flooding
This is where the phobic is exposed to the most fearful situation staright away. Then because a fearful response cannot be maintained by the human body it is extinguished.
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Aversion Thearapy
This is where the behaviour we are trying to remove becomes associated with an unpleasant consequence. For example an alcholic is given a drug which makes them feel sick. the patient is given this with alcohol and thusly learns to associate alcohol
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Token Economy
This is where a person who is trying to get rid of a behaviour is rewarded when they do a behaviour which opposes the unwanted the behaviour or is punished by removal of tokens when they commit the behaviour and thusly learn to stop the behaviour. Th
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Card 2

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Classical conditioning is a process that involves creating an association between a naturally existing stimulus and a previously neutral one.

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Classical Conditioning

Card 3

Front

He presented the dogs with food in a bowl several times, So that eventually the dogs would salivate even ti an empty bowl. He then changed the stimulus to a bell to see if dogs would salivate when the bell is rung.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Eventually the dogs did salivate when no food was present and the bell was rung. C: Classical conditioning can be used to broaden known behaviours to new stimuli

Back

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Card 5

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Naturally, and automatically triggers a response.

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