Leaf Adaptions

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What is photosynthesis?
Photosynthesis is a fundamental process by which plants manufacture carbohydrates from raw materials, using light for an energy source.
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How do leaves maximise the area that they can absorb light in?
Leaves are wide and flat to maximise surface area for light absorption.
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What colour is the cuticle?
The cuticle is transparent so it can let light into the leaf.
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How do chloroplasts help photosynthesis?
Chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, the green pigment in leaves that absorbs light energy for photosynthesis.
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What are the four main layers of a leaf?
The four main layers are the upper epidermis cells, the palisade mesophyll cells, the spongy mesophyll cells and the lower epidermis cells.
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Why are there air spaces in the spongy mesophyll?
The air spaces are so that carbon dioxide can diffuse to the palisade cells.
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What are stomata?
Stomata are gaps in the lower epidermis cell layer that can open and close to let carbon dioxide and oxygen into and out of the leaf.
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Why do stomata close in the dark?
They close in the dark to avoid any unnecessary water loss - in bright light they open to let in carbon dioxide for photosynthesis.
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Why do the veins contain xylem and phloem?
Xylem is used to bring in water by osmosis, while phloem is used to transport sucrose (a substance made from glucose) to other parts of the plant.
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What is osmosis?
Osmosis is the movement of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane from a dilute solution (high water potential) to a concentrated solution (low water potential).
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What is diffusion?
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules from a region of their higher concentration to a region of their lower concentration (down a concentration gradient) as a result of the molecules' random movement.
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How many guard cells make up one stomate?
It takes two guard cells to form one stomate, and these cells can change shape to change the size of the stoma (the stoma is the centre of the doughnut shape made by the guard cells).
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How do plants obtain minerals?
Plants absorb minerals such as nitrate and magnesium through their root hairs from the soil.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How do leaves maximise the area that they can absorb light in?

Back

Leaves are wide and flat to maximise surface area for light absorption.

Card 3

Front

What colour is the cuticle?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

How do chloroplasts help photosynthesis?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are the four main layers of a leaf?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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