Leadership

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1.What are the key elements of leadership?
Excellence and outstanding achievement within one field or professional career. Leaders are people who excel at what they do and are recognized as competent by other people in the field.
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2.What are Northouse, 2007's key elements of leadership?
Is a process. Involves influence. Occurs in a group context. Involves goal attainment.
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3. Describe Freud's theory of Leadership?
Influenced by Le Bon. Leadership emerges as the natural consequence of a group's 'thirst for obedience'. Leaders must be prototypical of the group. Illusion - leader loves each of the group members alike.
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3. Describe Freud's theory of Leadership?
Leaders are more effective when they have an insight into their own psychological makeup.
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4. Trait Approach (Born and Not Made)....
Great Man theory-effective leaders are those gifted with divine inspiration & the right characteristics. Stogdill,1948-No consistent set of traits, a leader in one case may not be in another, not a quality but a relationship between people & situati
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5. What special traits do leaders possess?
Northouse, 2007 - Intelligence, Self Confidence, Determination, Integrity, Sociability.
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6. What is the five factor personality model?
Meta analysis of 78 leadership and personality studies published between 1967 and 1998; extroversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness and agreeableness - Judge et al, 2002
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7. How leaders lead - contrasting styles and approaches...
Task behaviour - facilitates goal accomplishment. Relationship behaviour - help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves, others and situations.
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8. Three leadership styles according to Lippitt and White?
Autocratic, demographic and Laissez-faire.
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9. What are Autocratic leaders?
organised the club's activities, gave orders and focused exclusively on the task at hand. They were less liked. Group atmosphere aggressive, dependent, self orientated. High productivity (leader present) Low productivity (leader absent).
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10. What are Demographic leaders?
Called for suggestions, discussed plans and behaved like ordinary club members. Liked more. Friendly, group-centred, self orientated. Productivity relatively high (absent or present)
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11. What are Laissez-faire leaders?
Left the group to its own devices and intervened minimally. Liked less. Friendly, group centred, play-orientated. Low (increased in absence of leader)
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12. What is the concept of situational leadership?
Effectiveness of leadership depends on the situation.
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13. What is Blanchard et al, 1985's leadership model?
4 sections on a graph model. Directive/telling style - high directive-low supportive. Coaching/selling style - high directive-high supportive. Participating/supporting - high supportive-low directive. Delegating - low supportive-low directive style.
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14. What is fiedler's contigency theory of leadership?
Effectiveness is leader is due to function of leader style and situation control.
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15. How does Fiedler define leadership style?
Uses the least preferred coworker scale to classify leadership style. A high LPC - the leader is human relations orientated-relationship orientated. Low LPC-task orientated.
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16. What is Fiedler's logic for this?
Individuals who rate their LPC in a favourable light derive satisfaction out of interpersonal relationship; those who rate the coworker unfavorably get satisfaction out of successful task performance.
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17. What is situational control?
The focus on three situational factors - leader-member relations. Task structure. Position power.
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18. Strengths of the contingency theory?
1. Predictive theory that is supported by empirical research (e.g. Strube+Garcia,1981). 2. Provides a way to assess leader style that could be useful to an organisation.
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19. Weaknesses of the contingency theory?
1. Leadership can change?. 2. There is some doubt whether the LPC is a true measure of leadership style. 3. Is leader-member relations more important than task structure, which is more important than position power?
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20. What is transactional leadership?
it is a style of leadership in which the leader promotes compliance of his followers through both rewards and punishments. it which explains the relationship between a leader and their followers on an individual-individual basis.
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21. What is Hollander, 1958's idea of idiosyncrasy credit and how is it relevant to leadership??
They are relevant to the study of leadership, as leaders with many credits are often afforded a greater ability to try innovative strategies to meet group goals.
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22. What circumstances would allow leaders to be innovative? How are idiosyncrasy credits earned?
1. Conforming closely to group norms. 2. Ensuring that the group feels that leader appointed demographically. 3. Seen to have competence to fulfil objectives. 4. Seen to identify with the group.
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23. From a TLM perspective what is idiosyncrasy credit?
a leader’s idiosyncrasy credit is the sum of the idiosyncrasy credit extended to them by each of their followers.
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24. What is the vertical dyad linkage model?
Part of the Leader-member exchange theory. it is the linkage between the leader and the subordinates.two types of linkages, termed the in-group and the out-group.
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25. What is the in and out group?
The in-group is characterized by expanded role responsibilities and benefits. While the out-group relationship is based on a transactional model of the employment contract.
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26. What are leader-member exchange theory based on?
The quality of exchange relationships between leader and follower. High quality LMX relationships are associated with better performing and more satisfied workers.
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27. What is a transformational leader?
A leader with these characteristics; charisma -provides a vision, inspiration-communicates high expectations., intellectual stimulation - provides intelligence. Individual consideration - gives personal attention.
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28. What did Waldman et al, 2001 say about transformational leaders?
'companies with high transformational leaders outperformed those whose leaders were not transformational'
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29. What is charismatic leadership?
Often transformational and charismatic leadership are used interchangeably. Charismatic traits are-adovates a vision. acts unconventionally-counter to norms. Strong self confidence. Makes self sacrifice to support vision.
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30. What is Leader categorisation theory? Lord et al, 2001.
1. Match between the leader's characteristics and the relevant schema of effective leadership. If your leadership schema =intelligent, more likely to endorse a leader the more you perceive as intelligent.
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31. Why are prototypical leaders more effective than less pro typical leaders according to Hogg, 2001? (Advantages)
1. They are trusted as one of them. 2. Attract attention and stand out. 3. Liked - facilitates influence (we are more likely to follow orders from people we like).
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32. How does Eagly, 2003's role congruity theory explain possible prejudice towards women?
prejudice toward female leaders occurs because inconsistencies exist between the characteristics associated with the female gender stereotype and those associated with the typical leadership. Inconsistent with people's schemas of effective leadership
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33. What part does trust play in leadership?
Group value model, Lind 1988 - Critical to group life. Procedural justice partially important - fairness of the procedures used to make the decision.
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34. What about communication?
A primary vehicle for leader influence as well as group task performance. Mastery-focussed- task instructions, correction of errors. Connectedness-focused: maintain positive self esteem, maintain relationships. High performance groups do both.
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35. How may electronic communication alter nature of group interactions?
Email/text may increase focus on task content, but lack of nonverbal cues important for socio-emotional interdependence, building trust. Harder for members to see others expertise, may judge based on stereotypes.
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2.What are Northouse, 2007's key elements of leadership?

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Is a process. Involves influence. Occurs in a group context. Involves goal attainment.

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3. Describe Freud's theory of Leadership?

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3. Describe Freud's theory of Leadership?

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4. Trait Approach (Born and Not Made)....

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