Last Minute Spoken Language Features Revision

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Backchannels
mmm, yeah, right, okay (words that show you're listening)
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Clause Combing (Speech Conjunctions)
and, but, so (not able to use more complex conjunctions like however, since, therefore because they are speaking spontaneously)
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Conversational Historical Present
People telling stories in the present tense although the story actually happened in the past (makes it more vivid and direct)
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Discourse Markers
well, oh, like, of course, yeah, right (more complex than backchannels; new topic, giving conversation grammatical structure, solidarity and understanding from listener, marking beginning or end of turn, showing how speaker feels
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General Extenders
and stuff, and things, and all that (indicate that previous word was part of a series)
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Hedges
bit, little, somewhat (used to downtone meaning of following word or add intentional vagueness)
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Intensifiers
really, very, well, extremely (before adjective or adverb to boost strength of its meaning; fall in and out of fashion in spoken language over generations)
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Monophthong
vowels in pit, pet, pat, pot, meat, door all monophthong because beginning sound and end sound of the vowel are more or less the same
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Narrative Structure
abstract (what story will be about), orientation (who, where, what, when and other relevant information), complicating action (series of short clauses in order of event), resolution (what happens in end and coda to finish story off)
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Non-Standard Grammar
usually using past tense of DO (I done it), or COME (I come here yesterday); using the right form of the word but in the wrong sentence
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Non-Fluency Features
silent pauses (often when speaker is searching for a word), filled pauses (er, erm. etc), repetition, false starts (kinda like crossing something out when writing; having to start saying something again because you got it wrong the first time)
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Quotative Expressions
they said ..., they went ..., they were like ..., this is (insert name) "...", here's (insert name) "..." they told (insert name/him/her) ...; people reporting what other people have said
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Rhetorical Strategies
three part lists or three sentences with the same grammatical structure
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Idiolect
Speech that is specific to an individual (can be influenced by location, class, education, age and personal preference
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Sociolect
Speech that is specific to a certain social group (influenced by same things as idiolect; people can have more than 1 sociolect
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Dialect
Semi-permanent language varieties (vary mainly according to geographical region and social class; e.g. Yorkshire dialect is not just the accent but the slang and different features of speech)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

and, but, so (not able to use more complex conjunctions like however, since, therefore because they are speaking spontaneously)

Back

Clause Combing (Speech Conjunctions)

Card 3

Front

People telling stories in the present tense although the story actually happened in the past (makes it more vivid and direct)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

well, oh, like, of course, yeah, right (more complex than backchannels; new topic, giving conversation grammatical structure, solidarity and understanding from listener, marking beginning or end of turn, showing how speaker feels

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

and stuff, and things, and all that (indicate that previous word was part of a series)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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