Last Minute Language Acquisition Flashcards

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Prelinguistic (Language Development)
1st Stage: 2-9 months; comfort sounds, nasal murmurs, raspberries, friction noises, snorts, oooo, aaaa; usually in response to pleasurable interaction with caregiver
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Holophrastic (Language Development)
2nd Stage: 12-14 months; single word speech, convey emotions, naming function, to express a desire or link to a child's action; often generalise using one word in any number of contexts; words often from parents language; parent interaction crucial
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Two-Word Utterances (Language Development)
3rd Stage: 18 months; just nouns and verbs, appearance of: single modifiers, two word questions, usage of the suffix -ing, ownership recognition, action expression; lack morphological and syntactic markers
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Telegraphic (Language Development)
4th Stage: 18-36 months; like telegram (just enough words so the sentence makes sense), appearance of: three and four word sentences, link recognition, overgeneralisation, vocabulary jump froom 50-13,000 words, concept of plurals and different tenses
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Post-Telegraphic (Language Development)
5th Stage: 2 yrs; appearance of grammatical elements: determiners (the, some, any, my, your, etc.), modal auxilary (can, could, may, might, etc.), auxilary verb (before verb: have, do, will, etc.), verbal inflection (plurals & apostrophes)
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Skinner (Theories)
Argued for conditioning, association, imitation & reinforcement; children learn by associating sounds with objects, actions and events, parents need to reinforce correct speech; rewards and linking words with meanings; BEHAVIOURIST PRINCIPLES
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Chomsky (Theories)
Argued that human brains have a Language Acquisition Device (LAD); innate mechanism with verb category & noun category built in; believed that all children born with a universal grammar and that mechanism didn't rely on language input alone
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Chomsky Evidence (Theories)
Stages occur at about same time in all kids; follows a similar pattern over different cultures; children acquire language quickly and effortlessly; made-up language of deaf people resemble each other in sentence structure over different cultures
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Sensorimotor Stage (Piaget Theory)
Up till age 2 yrs; exploring what sounds they can make with their mouths and learn to imitate some of the sounds their parents make and it what context they should make them
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Preoperational Stage (Piaget Theory)
Age 2-7 yrs; child talks constantly even though he/she doesn't need to; shows awareness that others may have opinions on things; little difference between when child is talking to someone and when he/she is thinking aloud
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Concrete Operational Stage (Piaget Theory)
Age 7-12; capable of using logic and solving problems; just concrete facts; no mental or abstract concepts; some people may stay in this stage and not reach full cognitive maturity
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Formal Operational Stage (Piaget Theory)
Age 12 + (at earliest); mentally distinguish between themselves and idea they are considering; express ad debate theoretical concept; increased skills in Maths, Philosophy and Logic
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Child Directed Speech (CDS)
Also known as "baby talk" or "motherese"; using pet names; more repetition, questions, baby talk, expanding on or finishing a child's sentence gramatically shorter sentences; higher pitch, slower speed, clearer and certain words emphasised more
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Child Directed Speech (CDS) #2
Maternal input; adults down't talk the same to kids as they to to adults; adapt their speech to the needs of their child and for maximum language acquisition although limitations on sentence structure,
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Card 2

Front

2nd Stage: 12-14 months; single word speech, convey emotions, naming function, to express a desire or link to a child's action; often generalise using one word in any number of contexts; words often from parents language; parent interaction crucial

Back

Holophrastic (Language Development)

Card 3

Front

3rd Stage: 18 months; just nouns and verbs, appearance of: single modifiers, two word questions, usage of the suffix -ing, ownership recognition, action expression; lack morphological and syntactic markers

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

4th Stage: 18-36 months; like telegram (just enough words so the sentence makes sense), appearance of: three and four word sentences, link recognition, overgeneralisation, vocabulary jump froom 50-13,000 words, concept of plurals and different tenses

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

5th Stage: 2 yrs; appearance of grammatical elements: determiners (the, some, any, my, your, etc.), modal auxilary (can, could, may, might, etc.), auxilary verb (before verb: have, do, will, etc.), verbal inflection (plurals & apostrophes)

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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