Language and Power

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  • Created by: Briony98
  • Created on: 06-06-16 11:46
Political Power
Held by politicians, the police and those working in the law courts
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Personal Power
Those who hold power as a result of their occupation or role, such as teachers and employers
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Social Group Power
Hold power as a result of social variable such as class, gender and age
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Instrumental Power
Power used by individuals or groups to maintain and enforce authority
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Influential Power
Power used to influence or persuade others
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Institutional Power
Power held by institutions such as hospitals or large companies like ASDA
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Power in Discourse
Concerned with situations where power relationships are set up and enacted through language
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Power Behind Discourse
Concerned with the organisation of institutions and the ideological reasons behind the enactment of power
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Ideology
Refers to the belief systems, attitudes and world views that an individual or collective might hold, which are displayed through the use of language
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Repressive Discourse Strategy
A more indirect way of exercising power and control through conversational restraints
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Oppressive Discourse Strategy
Linguistic behaviour that is open in exercising of power and control
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Power Asymmetry
A marked difference in the power status of individuals involved in discourse
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Powerful Participant
A speaker with a higher status in a given context, who is therefore able to impose a degree of power
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Less Powerful Participant
Those with less status in a given context, who are subject to constraints imposed by more powerful participants
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Constraints
Ways in which powerful participants may block or control the contributions of less powerful participants
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Jargon/Buzzwords
Special words or expressions used by a profession or group that are difficult for others to understand
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Modal verbs
Can be used to exert power by giving the allusion the reader has power (epistemic - choice) or show they have the power (deontic-will happen)
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Sentence moods
Declaratives - give the readers the choice and makes them think that they have the power. Imperatives - orders which show the producer as more powerful
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Reformulation
Taking someones words and putting them in a different way.
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Doing Power
Way power is demonstrated by superiors as a way of carrying out their occupational roles.
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Discourse - List/Instructions
Logical compression through stages, use of imperative verbs to instruct/guide.
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Discourse - Problem/Solution
Identifies a problem and then solves it.
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Discourse - Analysis
Breaks down the key ideas into constituent parts, and evaluates and explores.
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Allusion
Referring to other events, people, places, but not directly, to make a point.
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Antithesis
Where normal order of words or events are reversed for effect.
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Parenthesis
A qualifying or supporting statement explaining something.
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Left Wing v. Right Wing
Left wing - labour, newspapers like Guardian. Right wing - conservative, newspapers like Daily Mail.
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Face and Politeness Theory (Levinson and Brown)
Face: A person's self esteem or emotional needs, Politeness Theory: the categorising of face.
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Positive Face
The need to feel wanted, liked and appreciated (positive politeness strategy).
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Negative Face
The need to have freedom of thought ad actions, and not to feel imposed on (negative politeness strategy).
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Those who hold power as a result of their occupation or role, such as teachers and employers

Back

Personal Power

Card 3

Front

Hold power as a result of social variable such as class, gender and age

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Power used by individuals or groups to maintain and enforce authority

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Power used to influence or persuade others

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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