Language and Gender Theorists

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Robin Lakoff
Suggested "women's language" lacked real authority. He said that women used: tag questions, weak expletive terms ('oh dear'), intensifiers, hedges and fillers.
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O'Barr and Atkins
In opposition to Lakoff. Found that in courtroom trials 'women's language' was used by lower-classed and less authoritative individuals. Therefore, they renamed it: "powerless language".
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Janet Holmes
In opposition to Lakoff. Suggested that tag questions are multi-functional devices used for politeness and boosting.
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The Difference Approach
Jennifer Coates, Deborah Tannen, Peter Trudgill, Jenny Cheshire.
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Deborah Tannen
Six key differences in male and female talk: status vs. support, independence vs. intimacy, conflict vs. compromise, orders vs. proposals, information vs. feelings, advice vs. understanding
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Jennifer Coates
Men = boasting, swearing, 96% of stories involved a male protagonist, 72% involved no females, if they were involved, they were referred to sexually.
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Peter Trudgill
Analysed the use of the suffix -ing in both sexes. He concluded that men used more covert prestige to seem rebellious, whereas women over reported how they use received pronunciation.
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Jenny Chesire
Covert prestige is used more with women. Men use non-standard forms to seem rebellious.
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The Dominance Approach
Zimmerman and West, Pamela Fishman
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Pamela Fishman
267 questions asked by women at home, whereas men asked 107. Out of 45 topics introduced by women, only 17 developed into full conversations, whereas all 30 of men's topics fully developed.
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The Similarities Approach
Deborah Cameron
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Deborah Cameron
Suggested that the difference in gender has become blurred as a result of society's modernisation.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In opposition to Lakoff. Found that in courtroom trials 'women's language' was used by lower-classed and less authoritative individuals. Therefore, they renamed it: "powerless language".

Back

O'Barr and Atkins

Card 3

Front

In opposition to Lakoff. Suggested that tag questions are multi-functional devices used for politeness and boosting.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Jennifer Coates, Deborah Tannen, Peter Trudgill, Jenny Cheshire.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Six key differences in male and female talk: status vs. support, independence vs. intimacy, conflict vs. compromise, orders vs. proposals, information vs. feelings, advice vs. understanding

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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