Language Acquisition

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Chomsky
• Children learn language at a similar pace. • Critical period – 2 to 7. • Language Acquisition Device (LAD). • Language acquisition is a biological inevitability. • Virtuous Errors – when children make a mistake by over-generalising or over-applying
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Skinner
• Behaviourist theory. -ADULTS MODEL LANGUAGE FOR CHILDREN. CHILD REPEATS. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT.
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Piaget
• Language is closely connected to other aspects of a child’s psychological development. • Comes in 4 different stages: Sensorimoter, Pre-operation, concrete operational, formal operational.
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Piaget (Stages)
• Sensorimoter – 2+, the child experiences the physical world. • Pre-operation – 2-7, become more competent. • Concrete operational – 7-11, think logically. • Formal operational – 11+, abstract skill development.
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Jean Aitchison
• Labelling – linking words to objects. • Packaging – exploring labels (where they can be applied) – over/under extension. • Network building – links between connections (opposites, hypernyms/hyponyms).
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Roger Brown
• Similar grammatical relationships were formed in language and cultures. • Order of inflections – verb endings, prepositions, plural, irregular past tense, possessive, articles, regular past tense, 3rd per. sing. verb ending, auxilaries.
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Jean Berko
• ‘Wug’ experiment - showed children a weird animal called a ‘Wug’. Showed a picture of two of the animals. If a child had learned plurals then they automatically responded with “two wugs”.
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Ursula Bellugi (Stages 1-2)
• Negatives – 3 stages. • Stage 1 – uses ‘no’ or ‘not’ at the beginning or end of the sentences (e.g. no juice). • Stage 2 – moves ‘no’ or ‘not’ to middle of the sentences (e.g. daddy not here).
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Ursula Bellugi (Stage 3)
• Stage 3 – attaches the negative to auxiliary verbs (e.g. will not pee the bed). • Mean Length of Utterance (MLU) – morphemes /utterances=MLU.
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Michael Halliday (1-2)
• Taxonomy – system of classification (reasons why children speak). • 7 functions – personal, heuristic, representational, instrumental, regulatory, interactional, imaginative. • Instrumental – Fulfil a need. • Regulatory – Influence behaviour.
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Michael Halliday (3-7)
• Interactional – develop social relationships. • Personal – convey opinions. • Representational – convey facts/opinions. • Imaginative – convey an imaginary world. • Heuristic – learn about the environment.
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John Dore
• Language Functions: Labelling, repeating, answering, requesting action, calling, greeting, protesting, practising.
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Brown & Levinson
• Politeness theory. • Child may use positive face – do not understand awkwardness so negative face does not affect them.
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Katherine Nelson
• Four categories for first words – naming, events/actions, describing/modifying, personal/social. • Naming – the largest percentage of a child’s language (nouns). • Personal – the smallest percentage.
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Lev Vygotski
• .Play is linked to cognitive and social development.(ZPD- zone of proximal development) • Young children use props as ‘pivots’ to support play, but will use their imagination as they get older. -Caregiver must encourage. -Private speech by child.
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Catherine Garvey
• Children adopt roles and identities by acting out story lines and inventing objects. • Links to Halliday – imaginative function. • Play together as its fun but also as it practices social interaction and negation skills.
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Sue Lloyd
• UK Primary school teacher – Jolly Phonics. • Jolly phonics is a systematic, sequential, phonics programme which is designed to teach children to read.
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Sue Lloyd (sounds)
• Jolly phonics is a systematic, sequential, phonics programme which is designed to teach children to read. • Then taken through stages of blending and segmenting words to develop skills. • Comes under the synthetic phonics method.
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Jerome Bruner
• LASS model – children’s speech is developed by adults reading to them. • Four phases: gaining attention, query, label and feedback. • Caregiver lang: simple gram, shorter sent, rep, slower/higher speech, special lexicon (blanky), Q's ^
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Jerome Bruner (LASS Stages)
• Gaining attention – get babies attention with picture. • Query – ask baby what it is. • Label – tell baby what it is. • Feedback – respond to utterance.
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Barry Kroll (1-2)
• Four phases of development. 1. Preparation – up to 6, basic motor skills are acquired alongside some principals of spelling. 2. Consolidation – 7/8, writing is similar to spoken language – more colloquial register and clauses joined by ‘and’.
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Barry Kroll (3-4)
3. Differentiation – 9/10, awareness of writing as separate from speech emerges – stronger understanding of writing for audiences. 4. Integration – mid-teens, ‘personal voice’ in writing – controlled writing with appropriate linguistic choices- SA's.
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Kathy Barclay (1996) Stages 1-7
1. Scribbling. 2. Mock Handwriting. 3. Mock Letters 4. Conventional (their names) 5. Invented Spelling 6. Phonetic (sounds) 7. Correct Spelling (7-8 y/o)
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Rothery (4 Stages)
1. Observation/Comment 2. Recount- chronological 3. Report- non chronological, factual. 4. Narrative- creative, pattern, fiction
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Peera
1. Non-chronological, creative ideas lead. 2. Chronological, connectives
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Britton (3 Stages)
1. Expressive, punctuation (!!!), resembles speech. 2. Poetic, crafted and shaped. 3. Transnational, formal and impersonal style.
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Harris and Coltheart (4 Stages)
1. Sight vocab stage- recognise words as a whole. 2. Discrimination net stage- start to pay attention to orthography. 3. Phonological recording stage- sounding out words, if unknown. 4. Orthographic stage- recognises words orthographically.
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Clarke-Stewart
-Found that children whose parents spoke to them more have larger vocabularies
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Clark and Clark
-Their research suggests that children who are only exposed to adult speech don't acquire the same standard of lang as those whose parents speak directly to them.
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Hirch-Paschek and Tremain
-Found that children of 4 years old use features of CDS when speaking to 2 year olds.
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Pinker
-Also believed that language was innate like Chomsky.
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Card 2

Front

• Behaviourist theory. -ADULTS MODEL LANGUAGE FOR CHILDREN. CHILD REPEATS. POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT.

Back

Skinner

Card 3

Front

• Language is closely connected to other aspects of a child’s psychological development. • Comes in 4 different stages: Sensorimoter, Pre-operation, concrete operational, formal operational.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

• Sensorimoter – 2+, the child experiences the physical world. • Pre-operation – 2-7, become more competent. • Concrete operational – 7-11, think logically. • Formal operational – 11+, abstract skill development.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

• Labelling – linking words to objects. • Packaging – exploring labels (where they can be applied) – over/under extension. • Network building – links between connections (opposites, hypernyms/hyponyms).

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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