Language Acquisition

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B.F.Skinner
1957- Imitation Theory: Suggested that language is acquired through imitation and reinforcement.
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Lenneberg
The Critical Period Hypothesis
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Noam Chomsky
L.A.D- Language Acquisition Device- enables children to sift through language and see patterns i.e. grammar.
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Piaget
Understanding comes first, then the child will learn the word and then express it.
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Brunner
Language Acquisition Support System- LASS: Without caregiver, children will struggle to acquire grammar.
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Pre-linguistic Stages: Biological Noises
Vomitting, coughing, burping, crying- common to all babies.
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Pre-linguistic Stages: Cooing and laughing
Short-vowel like sounds, quieter, lower pitched and more musical.
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Pre-linguistic Stages: Vocal play
a controlled single vowel or single consonant sound. More than babbling but less controlled.
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Pre-linguistic Stages: Babbling
Distinct phomemes in the forms of combinations of vowels and consonants.
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Pre-linguistic Stages: Melodic utterance
Melody, rhythm and intonation development.
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The Holophrastic stage:
Occurs at 12-18 months, single word utterances.
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The two-word stage:
Around the age of two, once children have around 50 words, they begin to put them together.
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The Telegraphic stage:
When a child starts tringing more than 2 words together, utterances may be 2,3,4 or 5 words long.
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Addition
The repetition of particular sounds and structures e.g. doggie. adding an extra vowel.
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Reduplication
Repeating the whole syl,lable.
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Making words easier (Deletion/Phonemic simplification)
Final consonants may be dropped, stress syllables are often deleted etc.
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Substitution
Easier sounds are used instead of harder ones e.g. "r" becomes "w".
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Change in tone of voice (intonation)
Innotational pattern-prosodics
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Prosodics:
Voice quality, caried intonation marked rises and falls, slower delivery to pickup words.
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Repetition
To reinforce vocabulary
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Closed questions
To check understanding.
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Phoneme
Unit of sound i.e. b or t
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Holophrase
One word utterace.
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Dipthongs
Unpure vowel sounds (2 sounds emerging)
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Glottal stop
Miss out "t's"
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Plosive
Explosion of air.
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Fricitive
Friction in the mouth.
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Inflection
A grammar morphene added to create an inflection.
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Over-generalisation/extension
Over-applying a grammar rule.
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Instrumental
To satisfy a child's needs "juice".
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Regulatory
Organising other people to do things "get teddy"
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Interactional
To have a conversation, to promote dialect.
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Heuristic
Asking a question to find things out.
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Personal
To express feelings/thoughts.
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Representattional
Stating facts.
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Child-directed speech
The way parents simplify speech for children.
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Underextension
When a child uses words to apply to a bunch.
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Proto-word
A combination of sounds that mean more than just babbling.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The Critical Period Hypothesis

Back

Lenneberg

Card 3

Front

L.A.D- Language Acquisition Device- enables children to sift through language and see patterns i.e. grammar.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Understanding comes first, then the child will learn the word and then express it.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Language Acquisition Support System- LASS: Without caregiver, children will struggle to acquire grammar.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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