Language Levels

(Level 1) Word Class
A groups of words that fulfill the same kind of role and function in speech and writing
1 of 146
(Level 1) Open (or lexical) word class
A word class that is generally open to new membership
2 of 146
(Level 1) Noun
A word that names a thing or concept
3 of 146
(Level 1) Verb
A word that shows a state of being, action, or event
4 of 146
(Level 1) Adjective
A word that modifies a noun
5 of 146
(Level 1) Adverb
A word that modifies a verb, an adjective or another adverb
6 of 146
(Level 1) Closed (or grammatical) word class
A word class which doesn't readily admit new members
7 of 146
(Level 1) Pronoun
A word that substitutes for a noun, often referring back or forwards to them e.g. 'he', 'she', 'they', 'it'
8 of 146
(Level 1) Determiner
A word that adds detail or clarity to nouns e.g. 'the', 'my', 'some'
9 of 146
(Level 1) Preposition
A word that provides connections between words, often showing a sense of place or time e.g. 'in', 'one', 'between', 'during'
10 of 146
(Level 1) Conjunction
A word that provides connections between larger structures, phrases, clauses and sentences e.g. 'and', 'but', 'because'
11 of 146
(Level 1) Semantics field
A groups of words that are based around a topic or theme
12 of 146
(Level 1) Collocates
Words that are typically appear together
13 of 146
(Level 1) Fixed expression
A well - used group of words that becomes accepted and used one long structure e.g. 'at the end of the day', 'see you later'
14 of 146
(Level 1) Synonym
A word that had equivalent meaning to another word
15 of 146
(Level 1) Antonyms
Words that have opposite meanings
16 of 146
(Level 1) Euphemism
A more socially acceptable word or phrase
17 of 146
(Level 1) Dyphemism
Using a blunt or direct word instead of a more polite or indirect alternative, close to taboo
18 of 146
(Level 1) Hyonomy
The way of viewing the relationship between more general and specific words
19 of 146
(Level 1) Metaphor
A structure that presnts one thing in terms of another
20 of 146
(Level 1) Proper nouns
Refer to names of people or places
21 of 146
(Level 1) Abstract nouns
Refer to state feelings and concepts that do not have a physical existence
22 of 146
(Level 1) Concrete nouns
Refer to objects that have a physical existence
23 of 146
(Level 1) Material nouns
Show actions or events
24 of 146
(Level 1) Relational verbs
Identify properties or show state of being
25 of 146
(Level 1) Mental verbs
Show internal processes such as thinking
26 of 146
(Level 1) Verbal verbs
Show external processes of communicating through speech
27 of 146
(Level 1) Base adjectives and adverbs
The basic form of an adjective or adverb, modifying another word
28 of 146
(Level 1) Comparative adjectives and adverbs
A form used to compare two instances either adding ‘-er’ or using ‘more’
29 of 146
(Level 1) Superlative adjectives and adverbs
A form used to compare more than two instances, identifying a best example
30 of 146
(Level 1) Personal pronouns
Refer to people and are differentiated in terms of person (1st, 2nd, 3rd), number (singular or plural) and gender (make and female)
31 of 146
(Level 1) Demonstrative pronouns
Orientate the reader or listener towards a person, object or idea, either nearby or further away
32 of 146
(Level 1) Indefinite pronouns
Refer to a person, object or idea that is non-specific
33 of 146
(Level 1) Articles determiners
Show that something is definite or indefinite
34 of 146
(Level 1) Possessives determiners
Show ownership
35 of 146
(Level 1) Quantifies determiners
Show either specific or non - specific quantities of a noun
36 of 146
(Level 1) Coordinating conjunctions
Link words or larger structure should such as phrases and clauses together where they are equal
37 of 146
(Level 1) Subordinating conjunctions
Link clauses together to show one is dependant on another
38 of 146
(Level 2) Morphology
The study of word formation
39 of 146
(Level 2) Syntax
The study of how words from larger sturcutures such as phrases, clauses and sentences
40 of 146
(Level 2) Descriptive
Taking an approach to language study that focused on how language is actually used
41 of 146
(Level 2) Prescriptive
Taking an approach to language study that focuses on rules and notions of correctness
42 of 146
(Level 2) Root
A morpheme that can stand on its own and can and cannot usuall form a word in its own right
43 of 146
(Level 2) Suffix
A morpheme that comes after a root word to modifiy it’s meaning e.g. ‘ing’, ‘s’, ‘tion’
44 of 146
(Level 2) Prefix
A morpheme that comes before a root word to modifiy it’s meaning e.g. ‘un’, ‘de’, ‘bi’
45 of 146
(Level 2) Affix
The overall term for an addition to a root (a prefix or a suffix) to modify its meaning or create a new word
46 of 146
(Level 2) Infix
An affix instered inside a root word to create a new word or modify its meaning e.g. abso-blooming-lutely
47 of 146
(Level 2) Inflectional function
The way that an affix show a grammatical category such verb tense or a plural noun
48 of 146
(Level 2) Derivational function
The way that an affix helps form a new word by attaching itself to a root
49 of 146
(Level 2) Noun phrase
A group of words built around a noun e.e.g The expensive television in the corner
50 of 146
(Level 2) Verb phrase
A group of words built around a head (main) verb
51 of 146
(Level 2) Head word
The main noun in the phrase
52 of 146
(Level 2) Pre-modifier
A word that goes before the head noun to add detail or clarify some aspect of it
53 of 146
(Level 2) Post-modifier
A word that comes after the head noun to add detail or clarify some aspect of it
54 of 146
(Level 2) Qualifier
An additional word or phrase that adds some further detail to that noun
55 of 146
(Level 2) Primary auxiliary verb
An auxiliary verb that joins it has a main verb verb to show tense e.g. ‘be’, ‘do’, ‘have’
56 of 146
(Level 2) Modal auxiliary verb
An auxiliary verb that joins with a main verb to show the degree of commitment towards an event or person that the speaker holds e.g. ‘should’, ‘might’, ‘must’
57 of 146
(Level 2) Clause
Groups of words centered around a verb phrase
58 of 146
(Level 2) Subject clause
Usually a noun phrase that acts as the key focus of the clauses and is often the focus of the relational verb process or the agent of material verbs
59 of 146
(Level 2) Object clause
Usually a noun phrase that identifies the entity being acted on by the action of the verb process
60 of 146
(Level 2) Complement clause
Usually a noun phrase that the attribute of the subject in the relational verb process
61 of 146
(Level 2) Adverbial clause
Usually a adverb or prepositional phrase that identifies the circumstances of a verb process in terms of time, place of manners
62 of 146
(Level 2) Coordination
The joining of two clauses that gives them equal weighting
63 of 146
(Level 2) Subordination
The joining of two clauses that gives one clause (the main clause) more weighting than another clause (the subordinate clause)
64 of 146
(Level 2) Noun clause
A subordinate clause that functions as a subject, object or complement
65 of 146
(Level 2) Adverbial clause
A subordinate clause that functions as a adverbial
66 of 146
(Level 2) Active voice
Agent in subject position for prominence; verb phrase in present or past tense
67 of 146
(Level 2) Passive voice
Agent omitted or placed later in the clause using a prepositional phrase; verb phrase changes to a form of to be + particle for, (verb root + en/ed)
68 of 146
(Level 2) Orthographic sentence
A 'sentence' marked by a capital letter and full stop but containing no verb
69 of 146
(Level 3) Phonetics
The areas of study that is concerned with investigating how sounds are actually produced by language users
70 of 146
(Level 3) Phonology
The area of study that refers to the more abstract sound system
71 of 146
(Level 3) Prosodics
The study of how speakers can shape meanings through emphasising certain aspects of intonation, speed and volume
72 of 146
(Level 3) International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)
A system for showing the different sounds possible
73 of 146
(Level 3) Heterophones
Words that have the same spelling but very different pronunciations and meanings
74 of 146
(Level 3) Homophones
Words that are pronounced the same but have very different meaning and may have different spelling
75 of 146
(Level 3) Diphthong
A vowel sound that is the combination of two separate sounds, where a speaker moves from one to another
76 of 146
(Level 3) Sound iconicity
The matching of sound to an aspect of meaning. Using patterns where sound mirror and actions they describe
77 of 146
(Level 3) Consonance
A pattern of repeated consonant sounds for effect
78 of 146
(Level 3) Assonance
A pattern of repeated vowel sound for effect
79 of 146
(Level 3) Sibilance
A pattern of fricative sound, specially 's' for effect
80 of 146
(Level 3) Lexical onomatopoeia
Words that have some associates meaning between their sound and what they represent
81 of 146
(Level 3) Non-lexical onomatopoeia
'Non-words' that nonetheless are intended to signify some meaning through their sound
82 of 146
(Level 3) Phonological manipulation
Making creative changed in sound patterns to give certain effects (pun)
83 of 146
(Level 3) Minimal pair
Two words that differ in only one singal sound
84 of 146
(Level 3) Phoneme
Individual sound of words
85 of 146
(Level 3) Plosive
Produced by the articulators coming together to stop the airflow and then being released
86 of 146
(Level 3) Fricative
Produced by the articulators positioned together, then released but in a way that is similar to the friction sound of a fricative
87 of 146
(Level 3) Affricate
Produced by the articulators coming together, then released but in a way that is similar to the friction of a fricative sound
88 of 146
(Level 3) Nadal
Produced by articulators stopping the airflow with a real sea through the nose
89 of 146
(Level 3) Lateral
Produced by articulators coming together and air being released over the sides of the tongue
90 of 146
(Level 3) Approximate
Produced in a similar way to other consonant sounds but without the articulation fully coming together
91 of 146
(Level 4) Layout
The physical organisation of a text
92 of 146
(Level 4) Iconic sign
A sign or image that is a direct picture of the ting it represents
93 of 146
(Level 4) Symbolic sign
A sign or image where an associated meaning is drawn from some shared degree of knowledge
94 of 146
(Level 4) Typographical feature
A feature related to the use of fonts in texts
95 of 146
(Level 4) Multimodal text
A text that relies on the interplay of different codes (e.g. the visual and written) to help shape meaning
96 of 146
(Level 4) Mise en scene
What is shown in a particular visual representation
97 of 146
(Level 5) Embodied knowledge
Knowledge that is associated with memories of physically experiencing something, for example the sights and smells of visiting a city
98 of 146
(Level 5) Schema
A bundle of knowledge about a concept, person or event. These are based on our experiences, so are unique to an individual but may share common properties
99 of 146
(Level 5) Co-text
Other words or phrases surrounding a word in a text
100 of 146
(Level 5) Cooperative
The general principle that people work together to communicate
101 of 146
(Level 5) Conversational maxims
Explicit principles that provide a backdrop for conversation to take place so that speakers can easily understand one another. Devised by Grice - quantity, quality, relevance and manner.
102 of 146
(Level 5) Implicature
An implied meaning that has to be inferred by a speaker as a result of one of the maxims being broken
103 of 146
(Level 5) Positive face need
A universal human need to feel valued and appreciated
104 of 146
(Level 5) Negative face need
A universal human need to feel independent and not to be imposed upon
105 of 146
(Level 5) Face threatening act
A speech act that has the potential to damage someones self-esteem either in terms of positive or negative face
106 of 146
(Level 5) Politeness strategies
Distinctive ways in which speakers can chose to speak to avoid threatening face
107 of 146
(Level 5) Deixis
Words that are context-bound and whose meaning depends on who is using them, and where and when they are being used
108 of 146
(Level 5) Person deixis
Names and personal pronouns
109 of 146
(Level 5) Spatial deixis
Adverbs of place e.g. 'here', 'there'; orientations words e.g. 'left', 'right'; deistic verbs e.g.'come', 'go'
110 of 146
(Level 5) Temporal deixis
Adverbs of time e.g. 'today', 'tomorrow'
111 of 146
(Level 5) Proximal deixis
Deictic expressions that refer to concepts, events or places close to the speaker
112 of 146
(Level 5) Distal deixis
Directrix expressions that refer to concepts, events or places at a distance to the speaker
113 of 146
(Level 6) Labov's narrative categories, Abstract
An indication that the speaker wants a listeners attention and is signalling the start of the narrative
114 of 146
(Level 6) Labov's narrative categories, Orientation
The 'who', 'what', and why that is set the scene and provides background informative that the speakers sees as important
115 of 146
(Level 6) Labov's narrative categories, Complicating action
The main body of the narrative
116 of 146
(Level 6) Labov's narrative categories, Resolution
The ending of the narrative that ties up loose ends and provides clousure
117 of 146
(Level 6) Labov's narrative categories, Coda
A signal that the narrative has ended
118 of 146
(Level 6) Internal evaluation
An expression of attitude toward the events in the narrative that occur in the same time frame as the main action
119 of 146
(Level 6) External evaluation
An expression of attitude where the speaker 'stands back' from the main action
120 of 146
(Level 6) Turn-taking
The process by which speakers construct conversation
121 of 146
(Level 6) Adjacency pair
A simple structure of two turns
122 of 146
(Level 6) Goodwin's Story structure, Story preface
A signal that the speaker wants to tell a story and an invitation to others to show interest
123 of 146
(Level 6) Goodwin's Story structure, Story solicit
A response from someone else that they want to listen to the story
124 of 146
(Level 6) Goodwin's Story structure, Preliminary to the story
Background information to the story in the form of the 'who', 'what', 'where' and 'why'
125 of 146
(Level 6) Goodwin's Story structure, Story action
The main body of the narrative
126 of 146
(Level 6) Goodwin's Story structure, Story climax
The conclusion of the narrative
127 of 146
(Level 6) Goodwin's Story structure, Story appreciation
Signals from the audience that communicate their response to the narrative. This might be a several points during the story or at the end and could consist of questions agreements, laughter or other signs of emotions
128 of 146
(Level 6) Preferred response
A second part of an adjacency pair that fits in with what the speaker of the first part want to hear
129 of 146
(Level 6) Dispreferred response
A second part of an adjacency pair that doesn't fit in with what the speaker of the first part want to hear
130 of 146
(Level 6) Insertion sequence
An additional sequence between the two parts of an adjacency pair
131 of 146
(Level 6) Exchange structure
Sequence of turns between speakers
132 of 146
(Level 6) Transition relevance place
A point where it is natural for another speaker to take a turn
133 of 146
(Level 6) Constant
The influence a more powerful speaker can have on another speaker
134 of 146
(Level 6) Filler
A non verbal sound that acts like a pause - either to signal uncertainty or simply as a 'breathing space' for the speaker e.g. 'erm'
135 of 146
(Level 6) False start
When a speaker begins to speak, stops and then starts again
136 of 146
(Level 6) Repair
When a speaker correctable some aspects of hat they have said
137 of 146
(Level 6) Skip-connector
A word or phrases that returns the conversation to the previous topic
138 of 146
(Level 6) Ellipsis
The omission of words for the economical reasons and/or because the context means that the person listening understands the shortened utterance
139 of 146
(Level 6) Speaker support
Words or phrases (both verbal and non-verbal) that show attention or agreement, and encourage a speaker to carry on talking
140 of 146
What extracts are first person narratives?
Text 6, Text 7, Text 13, Text 14, Text 15, Text 26, Text 29 and Text 31
141 of 146
What extracts are information texts?
Text 2, Text 5, Text 12, Text 20, Text 21, Text 22, Text 23, Text 24, Text 28 and Text 30
142 of 146
What extracts are visual narratives?
Text 2, Text 12, Text 13, Text 20, Text 21, Text 22, Text 23 and Text 24
143 of 146
What extracts are new technology?
Text 5, Text 10, Text 17, Text 18, Text 19, Text 27, and Text 30
144 of 146
What extracts are one-speaker narratives?
Text 6, Text 7, Text 12 and Text 15
145 of 146
What extracts are multi-speaker narratives?
Text 11 and Text 32
146 of 146

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A word class that is generally open to new membership

Back

(Level 1) Open (or lexical) word class

Card 3

Front

A word that names a thing or concept

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A word that shows a state of being, action, or event

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A word that modifies a noun

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar English Language & Literature resources:

See all English Language & Literature resources »See all Telling Stories resources »