Language comprehension

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  • Created by: The Shrew
  • Created on: 27-01-16 20:35
2-4yr olds 'Elmo in the car gopping'- tested with original or 'Elmo is gopping in the car'- younger- use SOV/ older- SVO blocks learning
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Language and thought separate (modular/ non-modular)
DD- Williams syndrome- mental retardation but language skill/ specific language impairment without mental delay
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Whorfian hypothesis
Linguistic determinism hypothesis- language determines thoughts
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Brown and Levinson
3 objects on table- Dutch= relative to body/ Tzeltal Mayans= absolute environment
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Li and Gleitman
American students more absolute when tested outside
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Universalist hypothesis
Different language categorise colours differently
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Winawer et al
Russians differentiate between light and dark blue- faster at colour discrimination task
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Syntactic ambiguity
when sentence can be read two ways
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3 types of ambiguity
Globally ambiguous/ temporarily ambiguous/ garden path- unable to create structure for sentence
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Eye tracking when reading
Fast, saccades (jumpy), regressions/ self paced= slow and unnatural
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Ferreira and Stacey
Standard approach- complete, accurate/ Good enough approach- partial representations good enough to extract meaning
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Working memory
Hold representations as we parse
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Span task
remember last word of each sentence, span= 4
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WM predicts use of animacy in parsing
High WM ps did not garden path with inanimate subject sentence
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Event related potentials (ERPs)
N400- semantic mismatch/ p600- syntactic mismatch
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Discourse comprehension
Using pragmatics to work out actual meaning using other knowledge
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Egocentric heuristic
Focus on own perspective and ignore common ground
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Discourse processing- 3 inferences
Logical inferences/ bridging inferences/ elaborative or strategic inferences
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Encoding during study/ Retrieval at test
Automatic/ Intentional
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Constructivist approach
Comprehension requires all three
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Bransford et al
Turtle ****
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McKoon and Ratcliff
Minimalist hypothesis- logical and bridging inferences are automatic during encoding, but elaborative inferences are made strategically based on reader's goals during recall
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3 sentences about dentist- 1=logical/ 2= bridge/ 3= elaborative- 1 and 2 equally fast but 3 slower= not automatic
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Bransford and Johnson
Laundry- title helps recall when presented before text- schemas affect on encoding
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Sulin and Dooling
Hitler or Gerald Martin- errors based on previous knowledge- schemas effect on retrieval
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Anderson and Pichert
Story from perspective of burglar or home buyer- then take other perspective- recalled new info related to second perspective- schemas influence both encoding and retrieval
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Integration model
Reader constructs three representations- surface/ prepositional meaning/ situation representation
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Kintsch et al
Forgetting functions for info at different levels- situation remembered best/ surface remembered worst
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Card 2


Language and thought separate (modular/ non-modular)


DD- Williams syndrome- mental retardation but language skill/ specific language impairment without mental delay

Card 3


Whorfian hypothesis


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Card 4


Brown and Levinson


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Card 5


Li and Gleitman


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