Language Change Theorists

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Suzanne Romaine
Refers to the internal and external history of language. Internal=formation of new words and the inluence of dictionaries etc. Looks at what happens inside the language with no external factors. External=the changing social contexts
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Goodman
We are living in a time of increased Informalisation- the process whereby language forms that were traditionally reserved for close personal relationships are now used in wider social contexts. What Fairclough termed 'Conversationalised'
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David Crystal (emails/message boards)
refers to the 'dialogic character of e-messaging'. Emails have a sense of immediacy of reply. Claims it is the dialogic nature of email, which is more significant than lexical informality. 'Asynchronous' and 'synchronous' boards vs. real time
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Hensher
Highlighted the complexity of the situation that people in a group can call each other names, e.g. ******, queer etc. but that when called these names from someone outside the group it becomes offensive
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Howard
"The revolving cycle of euphemism has turned full circle in the U.S.-black has become acceptable, replacing Afro-American, which replaced Negro, which replaced coloured, which replaced darky, which in turn replaced black."
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Bollinger
highlighted the increasing use of euphemisms in advertising- 'fun-size'(small), 'man-made'(fake), 'crafted'(manufactured) and in the media where dysphemisms are avoided- 'casualties'(dead bodies) 'tragedy'(crime) 'public relations'(propaganda)
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Labov
Martha's Vineyard research- found that the locals of the Island had unconsiously (change from below) altered their language away from the holidayers who visited the Island, towards the dialect of the local fisherman as a sign of unity perhaps.
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Aitchison
Progress or Decay- poses 3 ways of viewing lang change. 1. decay (view of prescriptivists) 2.progress (some Descriptivists) 3. Neither progress or decay, but inevitable (most Descriptivists)
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Halliday
Functional Theory- language changes according to the needs of its users (mainly covers lexical change). Tends to take the form of.. 1.new discoveries/inventions 2.Technological words 3.Slang
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Random Fluctuation Theory
Paul Postal- said language is as unpredictable as fashion and therefore changes in language are totally random. Charles Hockett- different angle- random 'mistakes' lead to language changing.
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Dennis Freeborn
Regional accents are often judged against people's attitudes and feelings about them: 1.The incorrectness view: all accents are incorrect compared to standard England and accent of RP. 2.Ugliness view:Some accents don't sound nice3.Impreciseness view
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Substratum Theory
Explains changes in language coming about through language contact. In the past this happened mainly through trade and invasion. Nowadays it might happen through social networking and immigration
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Aitchison (how does language change)
3 aspects: 1.Potential for change: a speaker makes a linguistic choice 2.Implementation: choice becomes selected as part of a linguistic system 3.Diffusion:change is imitated beyond site of origin
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Aitchison (metaphors)
Damp-spoon syndrome; Crumbling Castle View; Infectious disease assumption
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

We are living in a time of increased Informalisation- the process whereby language forms that were traditionally reserved for close personal relationships are now used in wider social contexts. What Fairclough termed 'Conversationalised'

Back

Goodman

Card 3

Front

refers to the 'dialogic character of e-messaging'. Emails have a sense of immediacy of reply. Claims it is the dialogic nature of email, which is more significant than lexical informality. 'Asynchronous' and 'synchronous' boards vs. real time

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Highlighted the complexity of the situation that people in a group can call each other names, e.g. ******, queer etc. but that when called these names from someone outside the group it becomes offensive

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

"The revolving cycle of euphemism has turned full circle in the U.S.-black has become acceptable, replacing Afro-American, which replaced Negro, which replaced coloured, which replaced darky, which in turn replaced black."

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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