Language Change Terminology

Neologism
New words, usually created from other words e.g. hospitalise (from hospital)
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Coinage
New words from no other source
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Borrowings/loan words
Words taken from other countries, for reasons like colonisation and trade
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Affixation
Adding prefixes and suffixes to words e.g. microwave, multimedia, loopy
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Compounding
Two separate words together e.g. blackbird, laptop
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Blending
Parts of words join together e.g. smog, motel
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Conversion/functional shift
Word class change e.g. to bottle, to open
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Abbreviation/clipping
Shortening of a word, e.g. advert, bus
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Back formation
Noun shortened to make a verb e.g. editor > edit, donation > donate
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Acronyms
Word created with initial letters that is said as a whole word e.g. radar, laser
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Initialisms
Word created with initials but with each initial pronounced separately e.g. BBC, CD, AA
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Eponyms
Words that come from proper nouns e.g. Sandwich, Freudian
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Obsolete words
Word no longer used that are not understood e.g. forsooth, enow
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Archaic
Words no longer used but mostly understood e.g.
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Broadening
the meaning of a word broadens over time e.g. "dog" now means all dogs
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Narrowing
The meaning gets more specific e.g. "meat" used to mean any food, but now just means animal flesh
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Amelioration
Meaning gets more pleasant e.g. "pretty" used to mean "sly" or "cunning"
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Perjoration
Meaning gets less pleasant over time e.g. "cowboy" now refers to an incompetent tradesman.
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Weakening
Word loses its force over time e.g. "soon" used to mean "immediately".
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Metaphor
Words often acquire new meanings e.g. "to shuffle off this mortal coil" means dying
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Idiom
A phrase or expression with a different meaning than literal. e.g. in the doghouse, under the weather, wake up and smell the roses
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Euphemisms
A less harsh expression e.g. "kicking the bucket" for dying
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Coinage

Back

New words from no other source

Card 3

Front

Borrowings/loan words

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Affixation

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Compounding

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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