Language change terminology

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  • Created by: killjoy98
  • Created on: 22-04-16 09:41
neologism
completely new word
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back formation
the removal of part of the word, e.g. editor/edit
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clipping
a more drastic form of back formation - creating new words by extracting an arbitrary portion of a longer word
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borrowing
taking words from other languages
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affixation
attaching parts of words to others, to form a new one, e.g. microbiology
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compunds
words formed when joining together two other words with, or without a hyphen; e.g. laptop, see-through
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blends
when parts of words are 'chopped off' and put together to form a new word; e.g. smog, frappe
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proprietary names
when a word is coined from a company/inventor's name, e.g. hoover
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acronym
a word made up of first letters of a phrase, pronounced as if it were an usual word; e.g. RADAR
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initialism
a word made up of the first letters of a phrase, each individually pronounced, e.g. CD
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implication
intended message of the text
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shared knowledge
allows the use of jargoon lexis, as the audience of a text shares an understanding of the discussed topic
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narrowing
meaning of a particular word becomes more specific
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broadening
additional, new meanings
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amelioration
meaning of a word becomes more positive
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pejoration
meaning becomes more negative
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metaphorical extension/idiomic usage
a word acquires a new meanings because they have been used metaphorically
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euphemism
an inoffensive way of describing something distasteful
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cliche
an overused expression or an idea
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anthithesis
a figure of speech with sharply contrasting ideas
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negation
'not', 'neither', etc.; double negatives weren't considered incorrect back in the day
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the subjunctive
expresses unreal conditions (wishes, doubts) but recently declined in usage ('if I were you' becoming 'if I was you')
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contractions
increase suggests a more informal, conversational style today and non-contracted forms now suggest a degree of formality/emphasis
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pronouns
'thou', 'thee' and 'thine' have generally disappeared from English; in some regional dialects a distinction still exists between singular and plural version of 2nd person pronouns, with the use of 'youse' as plural
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inflections
there are still inflections in modern English, but there were many more. Old English was very reliant on them, but most Old English inflections disappeared during the middle ages
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fonts
different fonts can be used to portray different tones and meanings
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layouts
layouts can make a page busy, easy to follow, formal or informal and often reflect the context in which they are found
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colours
different colours connote different moods and feelings
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images
photos, graphs and diagrams provide additional information to the written text and also grab the reader's attention
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prescriptivism
language should be in order and pure
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descriptivism
describes nature of language variations without judgment
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conversion
a word changes its word class, e.g. text (noun to verb)
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derivational morphology
a creation of new words by adding prefixes and suffixes
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neosemy
when words begin to be used in different ways and acquire new meanings
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bleaching
meaning of the word becomes less strong over time
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informalisation
the way in which language is becoming increasingly formal
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obsolete
no longer having any use
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standardisation
making all variations of language conform to a set standard
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the definite article
the
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the indefinite article
a
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

the removal of part of the word, e.g. editor/edit

Back

back formation

Card 3

Front

a more drastic form of back formation - creating new words by extracting an arbitrary portion of a longer word

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

taking words from other languages

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

attaching parts of words to others, to form a new one, e.g. microbiology

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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