Language Change Over Time Theorists

Convoluted syntax
Drawn out sentences, extremely complex and difficult to follow.
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Start of the British Empire and Global Expansion
15th/16th Century
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Rise in grammatical attention which led to a more elaborate writing style emerging
18th and 19th Century
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Britain's Imperial Century
1815-1914
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Changes to UK postal system from what once was expensive, confusing and corrupt
1840
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Proportion of people attending University in the 1920s and 30s
4%
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Proportion of people attending University today
35%
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World War One and Two
1914/1939
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Social change mirrored in language due to the shift towards increasing informality in many contexts
Informalisation
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We are living in a time of increased informalisation - language once reserved for close personal relationships now used in wider social contexts
Sharon Goodman
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Influence of different forms of languages that come into contact with English affects how it changes. Popular culture and immigration are main causes of the changes. Language from community below 'standard form' comes into and is adopted by standard
Substratum Theory
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Spread of English as a global language disadvantages other languages, causing them to die out
Robert Phillipson (1992)
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English Language is adopted as a common language between speakers whos native languages are different
Lingua Franca
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English is spoken as a first language (UK, USA, Canada etc). Norm providing - English Language norms developed in these countries
Inner Circle - Kachru
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English is a second language (India, Singapore etc). Countries own varieties of English developing
Outer Circle - Kachru
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English used to communicate in business, politics and education (Russia, China etc). Used for practical purposes
Expanding Circle - Kachru
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Reason a new word could be accepted for use eg. something invented which doesn't yet have a name, need for a new slang word etc.
Aitchison - Potential Stage
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New word or meaning in use by a small language community - links to Bailey's Wave Model
Aitchsion - Implimentation Stage
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New usage of language spreads into wider use. It is at this point that some users resist some of the new forms
Aitchison - Diffusion Stage
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New word is formalised by being recorded in the dictionary
Aitchison - Codification Stage
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Geographical distance could have impact on language change. People closer to epicentre of language change are more likely to pick it up - like those close to the epicentre of an earthquake
Bailey's Wave Model (1973)
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Language is like a tide, moving in and out. Some new words and usages remain whilst others are swept away. Not all new words/meanings from any time period will be taken into the language permanently
David Crystal's Tide Metaphor (1980s)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Start of the British Empire and Global Expansion

Back

15th/16th Century

Card 3

Front

Rise in grammatical attention which led to a more elaborate writing style emerging

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Britain's Imperial Century

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Changes to UK postal system from what once was expensive, confusing and corrupt

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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